AFRICAN UNION: A PATH TOWARDS SOCIO- ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
Suresh Kumar and Rouble Rani*
(* Lecturer in Mata Sundari College for Women, University of Delhi)
Published in Indian Journal of African Studies, Vol.XIV, April & October 2003, No.1 &2. (Published in January 2006).
Unity is the overwhelming demand of Africans across the continent. Africa’s Political Integration promises to fulfill the aspirations of Africans in all walks of life, common values embedded in African traditions, rule of law and constitutionalism form the foundation for an effective and democratic African Union (AU). A number of critical structures will be put in place and will deal with a variety of critical issues that will ensure the continent forward movement with regard to governance accountability, the promotion and protection of human rights. Peace and stability and the facilitation of economic growth and development are the primary concern in Africa. The primary issue lies with AU to solve the transitional phase of political instability on the one hand and initiate the process of political stability in the form of democracy on the other hand. Along with it, AU will promote political awareness to strengthen regional co-operation in the changing global environment. It will support the AU to fight against the neo-colonial forces and to broader the support to solve the issues like inter-state border disputes, common citizenship, constitutionalism etc.
The Post-1990 period at the end of cold war came forward with the issue of regional cooperation and integration as one of the most important recent developments in international political economy. The phenomenon of globalization has been matched by the rise of regionalization and regional cooperation. The emergence of regional cooperation and organization particularly after the demise of the Soviet Union are based on economic cooperation and mutual propriety on the one hand and building a balanced economic development to check the unipolar world dictates, which resulted the birth of the ‘African Union’ in Durban, July 2002 on the other hand.
The aim of AU is to create a democratic space across Africa, to promote economic development and to reflect a common African identity. The principle problems especially social and economic facing in Africa today concern education, human rights, gender dispute, HIV/AIDS, health, low technology, transport, agriculture etc. exists in Africa and the AU came forward to promote socio-economic development that persuades a way towards integration. In addition to it, the issue of national security, justice, protection of marginalized groups, the role of AU will be significant in dealing these issues.1 In order to achieve the social and economic regeneration of the continent the pre-eminent issue of poverty alleviation, through sustained people centred development must be vigorously pursued, so as to an improved quality of life for all Africans. The AU will work towards poverty alleviation and people-centred development, which together with peace and stability are essential for growing economy. The priority is to develop a prosperous and balanced economy in Africa, based on the principles of equity and mutual benefit, through the active involvement and empowerment of all the continent’s people.2
The leaders in unanimously, adopting and ratifying the Constitutive Act of the AU, demonstrated their concern for accelerating socio-economic development; the building of partnership between governments, private sector and civil society for fostering cohesiveness and solidarity amongst the peoples: the banishment of the scourge of armed conflicts constituting a serious implements and grave threat to peace, security, political stability and prosperity of human rights and consolidation of the democratic institutions to ensure good governance and the rule of law. African unity is a major challenge facing citizens of all African countries, governments, elected representatives, civil society, and the private sector. Africa’s political and economic integration is the main concern for all Africans. AU’s Right of Intervention is significant with reference to the strategic development in the matter of the structure and mandate of the OAU. The OAU mandate put more emphasis on sovereignty and ‘non interference’ with no reference at all to the issue of democracy, governance and human rights. Instead the AU not only addresses these issues, but will also be able to intervene in the internal affairs of the member country under specific grave circumstances like war, crimes, genocide and crime against humanity. Not only that, in the matter of coups’ the AU act is very ambiguous, it categorically states in its Article 30 that: ‘Government which shall come to power through unconstitutional means shall not be allowed to participate in the activities of the union’.3
The success of AU will depend on good governance, human rights, and democratization at all levels. Unlike the OAU, the AU will have the right to intervene in the affairs of member states, in case of genocide and war crimes. African leaders of today and the African people as a whole have the historic opportunity to realize the dream of unity, Africa can’t afford to fail in this noble enterprise, if the energies and commitments of the peoples of Africa, women and men, from all walks of life, are mobilized to participate in this common endeavor, then strong and democratic African Union will finally become a reality.4
The Sirte declaration said: ‘we deliberate extensively on the ways and means of strengthening our continental organization to make it more effective so as to keep pace with social and economic developments taking place within and outside our continent”.5 There is well-defined approach to promote socio-economic development mentioned under Article 4 of African Union constitutive act highlights the following principles like:
- “The Economic, Social and Cultural Council;
- The Specialized Technical Committees;
- The Permanent Representative Committee;
- The Financial Institutions.”6
An ultimate aim is for the organization to have a single African parliament, Court of Justice and Central Bank, although it will be several years before they are likely to take shape.
Art.4 further states, “The AU accelerates the socio-economic integration to promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its people’s. Among the basic objectives of the AU as defined in the AUCA shall be to: achieve greater unity and solidarity between African countries and the people’s of Africa: defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its member states and accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent. But it will not be easy to achieve the AU’s goals of economic and social progress and good governance. Integration is the way to develop Africa’s economic but poor infrastructure, debt burden and armed and civil conflicts are sizeable challenges.”7
African Union towards Social and Economic Integration of Continent
The socio-economic development of Africa is ultimately the responsibility of Africans themselves. Africa’s development begins with the quality of its human resources and the people of Africa undertake to work towards the enhancement of their human resources through the provision of more and better education and training, especially in information and communications technology (ICT) and other skills central to a globalising world; and better health care, with priority attention to addressing HIV/AIDS and other pandemic disease. Globalization and liberalization does not mean that there should be no role for government in socio-economic development. Now, African leaders should undertake to foster new partnerships between governments and the private sector. It will be the veritable engine of economic growth in the creation of a macro-economic environment. This includes expanding and enhancing the quality of human resources and providing the appropriate institutional framework to guide the formulation and execution of economy policy. 8
There is large number of socio-economic issues under the preview of the AU but the important problems that require immediate attention of the AU are discussed.
- Agriculture as Source of Socio-economic Development
The AU should play a greater role in the agricultural sector of the continent. One of the eight commissions of the organization will be responsible for agricultural development.9 The AU should ensure that a proper programme is prepared for food and security in Africa. Research and development should be an important aspect of work of these commissions. In this regard, emphasis should be placed on research and development that would benefit Africa. The member states of the AU adopt and implement policies and legislation in the field of agriculture to ensure equal access to control and ownership of land by women.10 They acknowledge that food security strategies imply necessarily the empowerment of rural women and the establishment of an African Food Bank reserve to be used in cases of emergency. The AU credibility will depend on its ability to deliver peace, economic progress and better living standard of its population. The targeted objectives of the AU are :
- Expanded market and economic possibilities;
- Increased efficiency and economies of scale;
- Extended bargaining power;
- Better understanding between peoples and readiness to accept diversity and considering it as an asset rather than a source of confrontation.
- Greater solidarity and deepening sense of organization, method, responsibility and respect for order.
- Instauration of a durable climate of peace and security.11
The emphasis should be put on the creation of:-
(a) An “organization for economic co-operation” with the aim to dismantle quantative refractions on intra-African trade;
(b) An “African payments Union” and ‘clearing houses’ to finance intra-regional trade;
(c) The establishment of ‘compensatory mechanism’ to mitigate disparities and to avoid out migration from the less favoured to the more prosperous areas.
(d) a mechanism of “monetary co-operation” with an emphasis put on stable exchange rates and improvements in the area of monetary policy coordination and currency convertibility.
- Poverty and Socio-Economic Development inAfrica
Africa remains its share as the world’s richest 20% of countries claim an 82% share of global exports and the poorest 20% of countries get only 1% share. Similarly the richest 20% African countries attracts two-thirds of the world’s Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). In contrast the poorest 20% African states attracts only 1% of FDI. The World Bank’s report entitled World Development Indicators 2000, concludes that the proportion of poverty. Stricken people can be halved by 2015, provided the world experiences continued economic growth and that inequality between the world’s richest and poorest countries do not increase.12 According to this report, a sixth of the world’s population, primarily in the developed world, received nearly 80% of world income. In contrast, the poorest 57% of the world’s population received only 6% of world income.
Good economic governance and corporate governance including transparency in financial management are essential pre-requisites for promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. Poverty can only be effectively tackled through the promotion of:
(a) Gender equality;
(b) New partnerships between governments and the private sector to civil society;
(c) Allocation of appropriate funds to social sector;
(d) Openness to international trade and investment; and
(e) The development of human and physical resources.13
With regard to socio-economic development it is recognized that in many African countries women are important inputs in the development process and Bank efforts in main streaming gender into poverty reduction projects are well underway. The growing emphasis on private sector development in regional member countries is key to reinforcing the synergy between poverty and gender. The need to enable woman to transform their activities from the informal sector to more structured and formal businesses, including access to productive assets and social services. In the same vein, the combined impact of globalization, the changing patterns of trade and modern technologies calls for the enhancement of skills that most women on the continent do not posses, as they lack the requisite level of education and training.14
- Health and Challenge of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is Africa’s known threat to survival in the 21st century. Along with malaria and other infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS is a threat to economic, social development and integration, which must be addressed at national, sub-regional and regional levels. The supply and production of medicines as well as vaccine research is most efficiently pursued at the regional level. Migrants and refugees should have equal access to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.
According to the United Nations (UN) estimates, 15,000 people worldwide are infected with HIV/AIDS each day.15 The other report observed that AIDS has already caused immense suffering by killing almost 2.5 million Africans this year alone and has left 11 million African Children orphaned since the epidemic began. AIDS is eroding the health of Africa’s women; it is eroding the skills, experience and networks that kept their families and communities going.16 Continental commitments to overcome AIDS and other infectious disease as made by African Heads of state at Abuja in April 2001, can be realized, enhanced and monitored by regional mechanisms. A joint AU-Economic Community of Africa (ECA) – UN AIDS – World Health Organization (WHO) group, with an input from civil society, should monitor the Abuja declaration and formulate an annual report for submission to the AU summit. The member countries need to put in place mechanisms for the implementation of these commitments at national level, complete with monitoring mechanisms. A regional centre of expertise and research in analyzing, monitoring and developing public policies with respect to AIDS should be established. Existing regional networks concerned with HIV/AIDS should be stregthned.17 The AU can now concentrate on funding its own research in order to find a lasting cure to these diseases:
(a) All member state of the AU establish a matter of national security and stability, comprehensive laws and strategies to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic;
(b) HIV/AIDS policies and programming interventions take due cognizance of the gender implications of the pandemic.
- Education and Unemployment in Africa
The rate of illiteracy for people over 15 is 41 percent in Africa and higher education for most women in Africa tends to be a frightening experience as it battles for pride of place with marriage, family and reproductive life.18 However the opening of a University flexibility is enough to answer the higher education needs of African women unable to access University education for marital and financial reasons is in the offing.19 Africa should identify and promote regional centers of excellence in higher education and research, especially in science and technology, strengthen its links. With the diasporas and establish strategic partnerships with international partners to promote priority areas for research. African Universities should themselves develop strategic plans and should promote shared curriculum development, sharing of staff and exchange of students.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) understands the investment in the educational sector, which will help for poverty reduction, human resource development and knowledge-based economies. African Countries should reflect this priority in increased appropriations for education. Unemployment, officially around 30% unofficially 41.5%, continues to cloud the horizon. A plan to address that problem by limiting immigration will probably just worsen another one: a shortage of skilled labour.20
The new century offers a special opportunity to change this picture. Improving education system, and lack of jobs are the most basic requirements. African union is taking charge of these social and economic issues.21
- Information Technology and Communication
The information and communications technology (ICT) is fundamental to Africa’s future economic development. ICT cuts across the various aspects of regional integration and has the potential for accelerating the integration of Africa’s markets and raising the continent’s global competitiveness. Currently, Africa’s ICT suffers from myriad handicaps, including inadequate funding, poor physical infrastructure, weak regulatory and legislative frameworks, dearth of human resources, and lack of policies.22 The establishment of the AU progress in partnership with all stakeholders, in particular the private sector should establish working groups on ICT at national level using the framework of the African Information society initiative. AU should not lose sight of the need to take into account the cross cutting issues of content development and gender dimension in all areas of ICT Policy development and implementation.23
- The Issue of Gender in the society and AU
Gender and socio-economic development have three major dimensions that have direct implications for an equitable economic growth and poverty reduction; equity; governance and human rights; and economic growth and Poverty reduction, equity, governance, human rights and economic developments. In general, gender equity and poverty reduction go hand-in-hand given that women, relative to men, are discriminated against in many spheres of social and economic life. For instance, there is a bias against women in the delivery of social services, especially education and employment in the formal sector. Such biases are not only inequitable but also economically inefficient. For example, just by educating girls, African Societies can reap social benefits such as reduced malnutrition for children, Infant and maternal for children Infant and maternal mortality and fertility. As for are closely linked in African Societies.24 African Union needs to pay special attention to gender Concerns including gender-balanced representation in the union itself and in the process of consultation to establish the union. The commitment of the AU to the principle of gender equity is fundamental in all aspects of the process of establishing the union, in its representative institutions and in its programmes. Such as New partnership for Africa’s development (NEPAD), the empowerment and representation of women should be a central component.25
The adoption of the protocol on the Rights in AU charter women is a positive step towards combating discrimination and violence against women. The AU adopted the protocol on the Rights of women in Africa is a significant step in the efforts to promote and ensure respect for the rights of African women on 11 July 2003, at the second summit of the union in Maputo, Mozambique. It requires African governments to eliminate all forms of discrimination and violence against women and men. In addition, it obligates them to integrate a gender perspective in their policy decisions, legislation, development plans and activities and to ensure the over all women’s development. The protocol will enter into force after 15 states have ratified. Its provisions include the right to life, integrity and security of person, right to participation in the political and decision making process, right to inheritance, right to food security and adequate housing, protection of women against harmful traditional practices and protection of women in armed conflict.26
The implementation of the protocol will be supervised by the African Commission on Human and people’s Rights, the body established to monitor compliance of states parties to the African charter, pending the establishment of the African court on Human and people’s Rights. The first Union Ministerial Conference in May 2003 in Kigali, Rwanda calls upon member states of the AU to take all necessary measures for early adoption, ratification of the protocol.27 The Pan African Parliament (of the AU) protocol should be amended to allow for at least two women representatives out of the five representatives from each member country and participation of African women in the organs of the AU that the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOC) ensures gender parity in its membersip.28
- The Issue of Peace and Security and Socio-economic development
There is a need to ensure peace, security and democracy, which is a precondition for any form of development as well as political and economic integration. Peace and security are the essential requirement and fundamental to human existence. Human security is the foundation of all forms of security, including state security. In this regard, peace and security is first and foremost responsibility for Africans and must therefore be a priority for the AU. While recognizing the primary responsibility of Africa’s leaders and peoples for regional peace and security in the continent, the role of international actors need to be acknowledged. For this reason it is necessary to evolve new, effective and sustainable partnerships for peace and security in Africa as mandated by the charter of the United Nations.
The breakdown of peace and security in Africa is in part of result of the erosion African ethical values and philosophies. The quest for peace and security should therefore aim to rehabilitate and revitalize those values as well as the ways and means through which these values are transmitted from the old to the young people. This value should be part of education curriculum that would go a long way towards deepening of commitments to African unity through the AU. In pursuit of peace and security, it is both desirable and necessary to seek harmonization and co-ordination between the AU and Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The AU should seek means of clarifying the roles and responsibilities of these different African organizations, and should create a formal mechanism for co-operation between them. The clarification of national and regional security doctrines is a precondition for effective security policies and an integral part of good governance. Government should be encouraged to define their national security interest within the framework of the principles and goals of the AU and maintain armed forces consistent with these definitions. Special efforts should be made to restrict the illegal flow of small arms, to demobilize child soldiers, and to prevent the use of anti-personnel landmines in accordance with the Ottawa Convention.29 The process of creating the AU cannot be separated from the myriad processes of establishing democracy, good governance institutional capacity and peace across the continent, making the existing institutions work, including governments, is a part of the wider AU agenda. Constitutional rule at the national level is one of the elements guarding against the unlawful use of force in international relations. A regional culture of respect for constitutionalism as manifest in the AU’s commitment to only respect governments that have come to power through constitutional means, is a solid foundation for promoting democratic constitutionalism across the Africa continent.30 The AU’s, future peace and security architecture should seek to redress the existing shortcomings, in addition to broadening its concern for human security in all its aspects. There is a powerful symbiosis between good governance, respect for human rights, social inclusion, economic development, and peace and security. There has been progress towards peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sudan and Burundi even in Somalia, where there are hopes that a new government accepted by the whole country.31
- Socio-Economic Development and Regional Integration
Africa has been a pioneer of regional integration, starting with the aspirations of the first nationalist in the 18th century, through Pan African Congresses. It was taken over through the Lagos Plan of Action (LPA), Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community (AEC) and finally the African Union. The current regional climate, including the decision to establish the AU and the momentum underpinning NEPAD indicated that the moment was mature for integrating existing peace and security issues within a unifying framework, in such a way that they retain their essential autonomy and dynamism but complement one another more effective. The combination of the AU and NEPAD provides a framework for bringing peace and security issues together with the question of governance and constitutionalism and economic development and international partnership. Some African countries have taken regional security responsibilities very seriously. Nigeria’s leadership and participation in the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) forces (that deployed to Liberia in 1990 and Sierra Leone in 1997) cost of lives of 500 Nigerian armed forces personnel and spent $ 8 billion.32 Regional Economic communities are consolidating and proving to be engines for integration. Arab Magreb Union (AMU), The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority for Development Community (IADC), with the Community Sahel – Saharan States (CENSAD), are making great effort at economic and political development and integration as well as at promoting peace through conflict resolution.33 African leaders committed to continental and global co-operation including the strengthening of Afro-Arab co-operation.
Africa faces grave challenges and the most urgent of these are the eradication of poverty and the fostering of socio-economic development, in particular, through democracy and good governance. It is to the achievement at these twin objectives that the NEPAD process is principally directed. The member states of the AU have agreed to work together in policy and action in pursuit of democracy and good governance.
Global Market Challenges to Socio-Economic Issues and Conclusion
The term market economy, which leads to Globalization, is normally used to describe the process determining multilateral economic relations in the world today. Globalization is generally taken to encompass increased flows of goods, services, capital and finance across nations. Today, globalization has had a profound impact on industrial organization in the sense that the process of production, distribution and marketing of goods and services in Africa becomes a part of international phenomenon. The multinational enterprises are characterized integration of financial and capital markets, increased flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), the rapid diffusion of new communications technologies and the adoption of new organizational forms of production in contemporary market economy. This is the background against which Africa will have to position itself. This challenge will require investment in human capital and policies and institutions. It requires, especially, an economic climate that encourages private sector investment. An economic climate which ‘crowds in’ private sector investment and promotes development will, according to current orthodoxy, be characterized by at least some of the following attributes: –
(a) Price, financial and social stability are essential,
(b) Countries must contain their general government deficits so as not to exceed more than 30% of Gross domestic product (GDP).
(c) General government’s gross debt should be kept at less than 60% of GDP.
(d) Countries should aim to achieve flexible but relatively stable exchange rates.
Prejudice against Africa is one thing, but the costs and benefits for the international community in the rebuilding of Africa should be clearly perceived now, mostly by the Europe and America. They can provide the financial, technical and military resources, scale down their subsidies, give greater access to their markets to African exports, increase productive investments, solve Africa’s debt problems, stop backing incompetent despots and corrupt leaders and arming warlords, allow subsidies and protectionism to take place in Africa in some key areas during the African Union building process for the endeavor to succeed.34
Thabo Mbeki commented on AU, “We are making our own commitments about democracy, peace, corruption and our own resource into development.”35 To build a successful union, such conditions will require great stamina and iron political will, combined with the readiness to accept seemingly endless series of negotiations and compromises. The Vision of the AU will be Africa’s principal organization at the political, social and economic integration of the continent, which will lead to greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and peoples. It will based on common vision of a United and Strong Africa and on the need to build a partnership between governments and all segments of civil society, women, youth and the private sector, in order to strengthen solidarity and cohesion amongst the people of Africa. RECs are recognized as the building – blocks of the union, necessitating the need for their close involvement in the formulation and implementation of all the union’s programmes. Active involvement of African non-governmental organizations (NGOs), socio-economic organizations, professional associations and civil society organizations in general, will be required in Africa’s integration process as well as in the formulation and implementation of the AU.
To sum up, today, the AU has to make its marks on Africa now. AU becomes an effective tool for Africa’s socio-economic development. The decision to adopt the AUCA governing the union was a great show of unity among African leaders, who realized that the AU was the best way for Africa to hasten the process of continental economic integration laid down in the Abuja Declaration of 1991 establishing the African Economic Community (AEC). The onrush of globalization in the 1990s made it clear that the leisurely pace towards a united Africa that created the AEC-was woefully inadequate. Hence the fast-track process to establish an AU and to ensure the speedy establishment of the African Central Bank, African monetary union, the African court of justice and Pan African parliament to constitute a united action to meet the challenges of globalization. It will be important to ensure that macro-economic policies to promote regional integration are compatible with poverty reduction, growth and development. A strong regional approach, through the RECS, is necessary for the process of regeneration, expansion and diversification. New islands of economic activity need to be developed and linked to existing areas of intensive economic activity. Regional and bilateral economic and trade agreements must be implemented in order to achieve a degree of balance between stronger and weaker economies. At present the main accomplishment of the AU is to signal the global community that the Africa Continent has seen the light.
* ** * * * * *
- African Union Constitutive Act, Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of South Africa.
- AUCA, Lome, Togo, July 2001.
- Progress report on Poverty Reduction, Vol.III, 2001African Development Board, 2001, p.15.
- African Union a dreams under construction,Africa Recovery, Vol.16, No.1, April 2002, p.21.
- National Herald,AU : Towards Social Economic Integration, 10 June 2002, New Delhi.
- We welcome the Union West Africa, 15-21 July 2002, p.4.
- Progress report on Poverty Reduction, Vol.III, 2001 African Development Board, 2001, p.15.
- Defining priorities for Regional Integration, ADF-III, consensus statement and the way ahead, 8 March 2002, p.16.
- African Union Constitutive Act, Lome, Jogo, May 2001.
- National Herald, AU: Towards Socio-Economic Integration of Continent,10 June 2002
- “Charting New Course” in Richard Gibb and Tim Hughes, (Economic Recovery in Africa, Regional Integration and Good Governance), May 2002, p.59.
- Africa guest for Recovery: African Union, Africa Quarterly, vol.43, 2003 p.24.
- News Time, Access to education, 14 September 2002, Hyderabad.
- Time, The selling of Mbeki’s New Deal, June 10, 2002, p.28.
- Defining priorities for Regional Integration, op.cit., p.7.
- Africa guest for Recovery: African Union, Africa Quarterly, vol.43, 2003 p.24.
- News Time, Access to education, 14 September 2002, Hyderabad.
- AU: Adoption of the protocol on the Rights of women, Amnesty International,21 July 2003, p.3.
- Ibid, p.8.
- National Herald, 21 June 2001,New Delhi
- Defining priorities op.cit,p.8.
- The AU’s first Birthday, West Africa, 7-13 July 2003, p.7.
- Charting a New course in Richard Gibb and Tim Hughes (Economic Recovery in Africa, Regional Integration and Good Governance), May 2002, p.53.
- NEPAD Declaration, op.cit., p.9.
- Gender Poverty and socio-Economic Development, vol.III, ADB Group, 2003 p.5.
- International Herald Tribune, out of Africa, New Promise for an AIDS vaccine, 12 May 2001.
- The Pioneer, women AIDS and Femine in Africa, New Delhi, 4 January 2003.
- Defining priorities for Regional Integration, op.cit., p.7.
- United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Symposium on the AU, Consensus Statement, 3 March 2002, p.9
- Peace and Security Dimension of AU, ADF-III, 2002, p.6.)
- Derrick Jonathan,The African Union’s First Birthday, West Africa, 7-13 July, 2003, p.8.
- Heitman-Romer Helmoed,African bid for peace and security, Analysis, JDW, 17 July 2002, p.20
- African Union Durban Declaration, Partnership, Durban (South Africa), 10 July 2003, p.18.
- The problems have not changed, West Africa, 3-9 June 2002, p.18
- What makes NEPAD different is its recognition of past failures, its ownership by African’s themselves and critically its timings, Time, July 10, 2002, p.26.
Africa Union Member States
|Sr. No.||Country||Population (in million) 2002||GNP/p $ 2002||Area 1000 (km2)||Accession to UNO||Accession to OAU||Constitutive Act of AU|
|Cote d Ivoire||16.80||610||322||20.09.1960||08.06.63||01.03.2001|
|Sao Tome and P||0.20||290||1||16.09.1975||1975*||02.03.2001|