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Friday, 15 November 2013 14:14

Oil Energy and Gas as an Emerging Sector: Mutual Interests of India and Africa

Dr. Suresh Kumar, Dr. Gajendra Singh  and Ms. Jyoti

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http://www.africaindia.org

Introduction
The demand of natural resources of oil and gas has increased manifolds since the post 1990 globalization and it is available at higher prices (of three-four times more) as compare to 1990. The Iraq-Kuwait crisis, Somalia Crisis and other are the result of increased demand of oil and gas in the open market as the multinational oil companies are fetching raw oil free of cost from the crisis-ridden areas. As we know, India needs energy security to sustain economic growth of 10% and India currently imports 70% of its oil and 50% of its gas. Africa Gas reserves and production are playing an important role having reserves representing nearly 8-9% of global reserves. Africa reserves-to-production ratio is among the highest in the world at the current rate of production. These reserves will last 78 years. As all the major Euro-dollar powers are hungry to capture oil and gas reserve in Africa, it is important for India to work differently in Africa to cater the needs of oil and gas.

Geopolitically, India needs energy resources as a means for securing the broader interests of foreign market, defence, social stability and upcoming political growth. India has significant reserves of coal but it is relatively poor in oil and gas resources. India does not produce more than 30 percent of its oil needs from the oilfields within its territorial boundaries. The domestic production has been stagnating at around 32 million tonnes a year. It appears that the proportion of crude demand being met from indigenous production presently is likely to decline further. Estimates suggest that by 2020, only about 25 percent of the total demand will be met internally.  OIL and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) India has ventured into deepwater exploration. It is estimated that there are hydrocarbon reserves worth 1 billion tones of oil equivalent (btoe) in the deepwater of India. The ONGC deepwater exploration programme involves an estimated investment of US $ 0.75 million per day (Power. 2005: 27). At present, it is rather an expensive investment and none of private investor is willing to take up either in individual capacity or align with ONGC.
India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and is one of the world’s fastest growing consumers. Estimated to be a US $ 90 billion industry, the oil and gas industry is among the largest contributors to the central and state exchequers in India sharing approximates US $ 13.58 billion. The Forum summit of India and Africa 2011 further strengthened the issue of technology transfer. The PPP model (Public-Private-Partnership) are investing in different fields of energy security in Africa and signing the memorandum of understanding with them giving the priority to the transfer of technology. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) has signed an agreement of Transfer of technology with Nigeria in petroleum Refining, oil and gas exploration and started the different training programmes for Nigerians. The training program of India will strengthen the African Human Resource Development providing employment opportunities to indigenous people, contribute in real economic growth and securing India’s energy security. Similarly, South Africa has started a joint venture in Jharkhand Coal Mining and agreed to share its Coking Coal to Oil technology. It is another landmark on technology transfer that will improve India’s oil requirement. This is the major difference of India’s foreign economic policies as compare to the world community that will act as gateway for sharing the energy technologies among each other and strengthen Indo-Africa fraternity.
India-Africa combination may share energy sector and work each other as indispensable partner. India has drawn up a road map to intensify cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector with African countries. It identifies the broad areas of cooperation in exploration, refining & production, stepping up crude oil imports & exports of petro-products by India, retail marketing of fuels & lubricants by Indian companies in Africa, and training of technical & managerial personnel of African nations in hydrocarbon industry management.
Commercial energy production in Africa has nearly doubled since 1970, and is expected to increase another 68% by 2020. Production has remained about flat (at around 7%) as a share of the world total African commercial energy production grew from 14.8 quads in 1970 to 26.5 quads in 1997, and is forecast to reach 45.5 quads in 2020. Natural gas production grew the most, by 3.9 quads, followed by growth in oil and coal (3.8 and 3.6 quads, respectively), hydroelectricity (0.4 quads), and nuclear power (0.1 quads). Oil accounted for over 86% of African commercial energy production in 1970, with coal a distant second at 11%, hydroelectricity at 2%, and natural gas at 0.5%. As of 1997, oil had declined to 63%, while coal had increased to 19%, natural gas to 15%, hydroelectric to 2.3%, and nuclear power to 0.5%. As a share of world commercial energy production, Africa has stayed about constant since 1970 at 7%, and is expected to remain at about this share through 2020. African commercial energy production is distributed very unevenly throughout the continent. Around 99% of Africa’s coal output, for instance, is in southern Africa (mainly South Africa). Natural gas production, on the other hand, is overwhelmingly concentrated in North Africa (mainly Algeria and Egypt). Crude oil production is concentrated in North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, and Libya), West Africa (Nigeria), Central Africa (Gabon), and southern Africa (Angola). East Africa produces almost no oil, gas, or coal (Energy Information Administration, 2006).

Africa’s Potential of Oil & Natural Gas
Africa has 117.482 billion barrels of oil and gas reserve as on 1st January 2009. The natural gas in Africa is having 504.211 trillion cubic feet mentioned in Table-1. India is promoting the industry through investments, healthy competition and an institutionalized regulatory regime.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh of India is active in the deepwater exploration in India and has the mandate to invest in overseas are being evaluated by the Government. Companies are aggressively pursuing overseas markets. With over 3 decades of experience in developing countries, “ONGC Mittal Energy Ltd (OMEL) finalized the investment proposals for setting up a 15 million tonnes per annum export-oriented refinery, a 2,000 MW power plant and railway lines in the African country. The refinery would have an initial capacity of 5 million tonnes and would be expanded to 15 MT.

Table-1 Africa (World) Proved1 Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates

India

5.459

5.625

4.042

37.257

37.257

37.960

31.755

Country

Oil (Billion Barrels)

Oil (Billion Barrels)

Oil (Billion Barrels)

Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)

Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)

Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)

Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)

BP Statistical Review2
Year-End 2007

Oil & Gas Journal3
January 1, 2009

World Oil4
Year-End 2007

BP Statistical Review2
Year-End 2007

CEDIGAZ5
January 1, 2009

Oil & Gas Journal3
January 1, 2009

BP Statistical Review2
Year-End 2007

Algeria

12.270

12.200

11.900

159.446

159.059

159.000

160.000

Angola

9.035

9.040

9.500

NSR

9.535

9.530

5.700

Chad

0.900

1.500

0

0

0

0.000

0

Congo (Brazzaville)

1.940

1.600

1.940

NSR

4.591

3.200

4.050

Egypt

4.070

3.700

3.700

72.854

72.749

58.500

68.450

Equatorial Guinea

1.755

1.100

1.705

NSR

3.885

1.300

3.400

Gabon

1.995

2.000

3.184

NSR

1.059

1.000

2.500

Libya

41.464

43.660

36.500

52.795

52.796

54.380

52.800

Nigeria

36.220

36.220

37.200

186.991

186.887

184.160

184.500

Sudan

6.615

5.000

6.700

NSR

3.037

3.000

4.000

Tunisia

0.596

0.425

0.601

NSR

1.236

2.300

3.461

Africa

117.482

117.064

114.716

514.923

514.328

494.078

504.211

Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.html: accessed on 7th March 2011.
NSR- Not Separately Reported

  1. Proved reserves are estimated quantities that analysis of geologic and engineering data demonstrates with reasonable certainty are recoverable under existing economic and operating conditions.
  2. BP p.l.c., BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2008, except United States.  Oil includes crude oil, gas condensate, and natural gas liquids. United States oil data, including both crude oil and natural gas liquids, and United States natural gas data are from the Energy Information          Administration, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2007 Annual Report, DOE/EIA-0216(2007), (February 2009).
  3. PennWell Corporation, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 106.48 (December 22, 2008). Oil includes crude oil and condensate.
  4. Gulf Publishing Company, World Oil, Vol. 229, No.9 (September 2008). Oil includes crude oil and condensate but excludes natural gas liquids.
  5. Centre International d'Information sur le Gaz Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux (CEDIGAZ), Natural Gas in the World, End of July 2008 (Electronic Database).

ONGC Videsh Ltd. and Oil India have “drilled for oil in an off-shore well oil block with investment of US$12.5 million in Coˆte d’Ivoire. These companies have identified hydro-carbon and mining at the most targeted investment area for Indian trade and industry in Ivory Coast. Other African countries where Indian oil companies are planning to enter include Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. Today, Africa currently accounts for about 20 percent of India’s oil imports. And India has focused development initiatives on the resource-rich countries of West Africa” (Africa Oil. 2011: emphasis mine).
Table-2 highlights the major project working in Africa to upgrade and expansion in energy infrastructure. India participates in thermal, coal, oil and gas, petroleum products and renewable energy sector. All these projects are involved in different parts of Southern and Central Africa. Indian companies are taking care of international norms to protect environment sustainability.

Table-2 Power & Energy Project Summary


Sector

Sub Sector

No. of Projects

Total Value (US $ Million)

Country

Power & Energy

Thermal, Coal, Dams, Oil & Gas, Petroleum Products, Renewable Energy, etc.

53

17734.76

Burundi, Cameroon, Congo (Republic of), Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Namibia, Zimbabwe

Source: Project Opportunities, March 2012. CII, Export-Import Bank of India, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India: 4.


Investment Opportunity in Africa

  1. Power and Energy

The power crisis and its shortage are well marked in Africa despite their tremendous hydro, solar and other sources. India’s experience of power generation and its distribution to all remote areas to cater its millions of population is willing to exchange with Africa. Africa responds this gesture and invites the interested sectors of India to work in this sector. Table-3 shares the investment opportunities in power sector in Africa.

Table-3 Power and Energy Infrastructure Investment Opportunities in Africa


Project Description & Contact Details

Sector &
Total Value
(US $ million)

Burundi

Mulembwe, jiji, Siguvaye, (100MW),
Ruzizi III (145MW)
Contact Details– www.burundi-investment.com

Power & Energy
US$ 400 Million
US$ 402 Million

Central Africa Republic

Development of Culture of 10,000  Ha of moreinga olifera
Development of Culture of Jatropha 10,000  Ha for production of bio fuel
Contact Details- This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

US$ 40 Million

Congo (Republic of)

- Solar distribution, freeze and fridge.
- Battery (drum kit) without interview (maintenance), VHF/ UHF/ HF, cables, solar secondary connector, inverter, regulator, etc.
- Radio com, FH
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy

Power: Upgrading a 325 kva dam to 01 MW with its related transmission lines. Building civil engineering of a micro dam 06MW and its transmission lines. The blue prints are available.
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Agriculture, Power & Energy 182 US $ Million

Mozambique

Mphanda Nkuwa Hydropower plant
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Power & Energy
2500 US$ Million

Moatize Coal Fire Power Plant
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Power & Energy
2000 US$ Million

Benga Coal Fired Power Plant
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
900 US$ Million

Moamba Natural Gas  Combined Cycle Power Plant (750MW)
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Power & Energy
1300 US$ Million

Cahora Bassa North bank Power Plant (1245 MW)
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
800 US$ Million

Gigawatt Cycle Combined Power Plant
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Power & Energy
125 US$ Million

Lurio Hydropower Plant
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Power & Energy
400 US$ Million

Massingir Hydropower Plant
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Power & Energy
50 US$ Million

Majawa and Berua Hydropower Plants
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Power & Energy
120 US$ Million

Alto Malema Hydrpower Plant
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Power & Energy
124 US$ Million

Lupata and Boroma Hydropower Plants
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Power & Energy
124 US$ Million

Chokwe Cycle Combined natural Gas Fired Thermal Power Plant
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Power & Energy
75 US$ Million

Maputo Cycle Combined Natural Gas Fired Thermal Power Plant
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Power & Energy
85 US$ Million

Tete-maputo Transmission Libe Project (Backbone Transmission Line)
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Power & Energy
2400 US$ Million

CESUL Project
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Power & Energy
2400 US$ Million

Cahora bassa Norte (CHB NORTH) Project
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Power & Energy
350 US$ Million

Moamba Project
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Power & Energy
49 US$ Million

Benga Project
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Power & Energy
86 US$ Million

Moatize Project
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Power & Energy
70 US$ Million

Lupata and Boroma Project
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Power & Energy
124 US$ Million


Power & Energy
2400 US$ Million

NAMIBIA

Biomass briquettes making from sustainable waste materials for energy generation in Namibia
Contact Details- This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
23.9 US $ Million

RWANDA

Project Name: Rwanda Energy Company
Contact Details- www.rdb.rw

Power & Energy
134 US $ Million

UGANDA

Biogas is part of the emerging technological and environmentally friendly industry which is new in Uganda. Our company would be interested in partnerships with companies which have experience in this area.
Uganda is in the process of producing oil, areas of trucking, steering and management of waste are emerging sectors.
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Power & Energy
5 US $ Million

ZIMBABWE

- Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning of electrical power stations, transmission and distribution systems.
- Manufacturing of photovoitaic panels
- Code Division multiple access through optic fibre on onverhead lines ground wire expansion project.
Contact Details- This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
900

Source: Project Opportunities, 2012. CII and EXIM Bank of India: 7-115.

Africa calls for power technologies and equipment suitable for rural areas, where population density is low and, therefore, investment in robust electricity transmission infrastructure is not feasible. Alternatives include off-grid small-scale and affordable generators and low-cost solar energy panels.
Table-4 shares the possibility of hydroelectric power generation in other African countries. Republic of Congo has rich potential of hydrocarbon in the coastal rivers and production of petrochemical products. Zambia has vast water resources and coal reserve that explain in Table-4.
India has a strong and matured power back-up industry. Its exports of generators and inverters have been growing considerably due to the ability of leading domestic manufacturers to produce quality and innovative products at par with international standards. Africa has significant potential for hydro, wind and solar energy, which are yet to be exploited. Renewable energy may be the answer to many of Africa’s power woes. It can become a sustainable source of energy for regions in longer terms.

Table-4 Potential of Power and Energy in other African Countries


Democratic Republic of Congo

Some Projects in Energy Sector
A. Electricity Sector

  1. Rehabilitation and modernizing with possibility of expanding existing hydroelectric power stations namely Inga I (341 MW) and Inga 2 (1,424 MW). Project cost : 361 million USD;
  2. Building of Inga 3 power station (4,320 MW) Project cost: 3,542,600,000 USD;
  3. Building of Great Inga (39000 MW). Project Cost : 8 billion USD (1st phase);
  4. Building of the hydroelectric power station of KATENDE (36 Mw). Cost: 168 million;
  5. Building of the hydroelectric power station of SEMILIKI (72 MW) and associate networks. Cost: 160 million;
  6. Building of the hydroelectric power station of KAKOBOLA (99 MW) and its associate networks. Cost: USD 53 million;
  7. Building of the hydroelectric power station of BUSANGA (300 MW). Cost: USD 310 million;
  8. Building of the 2nd THT line 400 Kv INGA-KINSHAHA. Cost: Euros 159 million;
  9. Building of the hydroelectric power station of WANIE RUKULA (700 MW). Cost: USD 900 million;
  10. Connecting on THT ccl ine INGA-KOLWEZI at TSHIMBULU (200 MW). Cost: USD 200 million;
  11. Improvement and development of MT/LT distribution networks of the city of Knishasa. Cost: USD 209 million;
  12. Building of High Tension line Bandundu- Boende- Mbandaka. Cost: 80 million;
  13. Building of the line GBADOLITE- BUSINGA- GEMENA. Cost: USD 53 million;

Republic of Congo

The sector of Hydrocarbon has research and exploitation in the free zone of the coastal rivers and the inland rivers of the Congo basin as well as the participation in activities within the range of the permits granted; production of road asphalt; production of synthetic materials; production of industrial and domestic gases; production and distribution of lubricants and other petrochemical products.
Energy sector has the potential of construction of hydroelectric micro-central; maintenance of EHV line; rehabilitation of networks in the big cities; construction of Sound hydro electric dam, in the range of the magnesium project near Point-Noire; participation in private enterprise or restoration of the some business activites; construction of a EHV line in Inga/Cabinda/Pointe-Noire (PEAC); cross-border electrification with Gabon; electrification of  86 district towns with photovoltaic solar panels; extension of EHV network for national coverage of electricity and reform of the national Electricity Company.

Zambia

With its vast water resources and coal reserves, Zambia offers abundant investment opportunities for hydroelectric power generation, supply and distribution. The country has well over 1,750 MW of hydroelectric generating capacity. Proven coal reserves exceed 30 million tones and satisfy 9% of energy demand. The sector is regulated by the Energy Regulation Board, a statutory body established by an Act of parliament.
Hydro-electricity is mainly supplied and distributed by the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) – a statutory body whose operations were commercialized in 2006.
The country’s only major energy import is petroleum, which satisfies 12% of total energy demand.



Source: DRC: Land of Opportunities, 2012. Embassy of DRC, Delhi, Republic of Congo, 2012. New Delhi, Zam-Indo Business Profiles, 2011. Zambia High Commission. New Delhi.

  1. Oil & Gas Sector

Africa is having the potential of gas and South Africa, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco are actively engaged in this sector.  Table-4 shares the gas estimates in Africa and highlights production, consumption and natural gas reserve.

Table-4,  Estimated shale gas technically recoverable resources for select basins in African countries, compared to existing reported reserves, production and consumption during 2009
2009 Natural Gas Market1            
(trillion cubic feet, dry basis)

Countries

Production

Consumption

Imports
(Exports)

Proved Natural Gas Reserves2
(trillion cubic feet)

Technically Recoverable Shale Gas Resources
(trillion cubic feet)

South Africa

0.07

0.19

63%

-

485

Libya

0.56

0.21

(165%)

54.7

290

Tunisia

0.13

0.17

26%

2.3

18

Algeria

2.88

1.02

(183%)

159.0

231

Morocco

0.00

0.02

90%

0.1

11

Western
Sahara

-

-

-

-

7

Mauritania

-

-

-

1.0

0

Sources: http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/: accessed on 7th May 2012

  1. Dry production and consumption: EIA, International Energy Statistics, as of  March 8, 2011.
  2. Proved gas reserves: Oil and Gas Journal, Dec., 6, 2010, P. 46-49.
  3. Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria.
  4. U.S. data are from various EIA sources. The proved natural gas reserves number in this table is from the U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2009 report, whereas the 245 trillion cubic feet estimate used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 report and cited on the previous page is from the previous year estimate.

The oil & gas opportunities in Africa are attracting the Indian investors Table-5 in the areas of construction of a petroleum pipeline, distribution of petroleum products, Geographic Information System of Service Stations Oil Depots and Consumer points. The practice of transfer of technology is appreciated by the African countries and inviting Indian investors in these sectors.

Table-5 Oil & Gas Opportunities in Africa


Project Description & Contact Details

Sector &
Total Value
(US $ million)

Burundi

Mulembwe, jiji,
Siguvaye, (100MW),
Ruzizi III (145MW)
Contact Details– www.burundi-investment.com

Power & Energy
US$ 400 Million
US$ 402 Million

Cameroon

1. Feasibility studies on the construction of a petroleum pipeline between Yaounde-Douala, (US$ 3.50 Million)
2. Construction of three (03) points of rural distribution of petroleum products (US$ 0.6 Million)
3. Geographic Information System of Service Stations, Oil Depots and Consumer points (SIGESCOD). (US$ 0.6 Million)
Contact Details- This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy

Congo (Republic of)

- Solar distribution, freeze and fridge.
- Battery (drum kit) without interview (maintenance), VHF/ UHF/ HF, cables, solar secondary connector, inverter, regulator, etc.
- Radio com, FH
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy

Mozambique

Moamba Natural Gas Cobined Cycle Power Plant
Locaton: Ressano Garcia, Moamba District, Maputo Province
Total capacity: 750 MW
Initially, the construction of the Project was planned to take place in Moamba, in Maputo Province, with a total capacity of 750 MW, under the responsibility of EDM, Intelec and Sasol. In 2009, the Project verified some constrains, with a paralysation of approximately a year, due to financial crises which have affected Eskom from South Africa, with implications for the conclusions of the PPA negotiations that was underway.
The concept of Moamba Project with a capacity of 750 MW was in better line for Mozambique option, once, besides the development stage achieved, the project would provide opportunity for the effective time use of the natural gas allocated for the country, evaluated in 27 million of GJ comparing with other alternatives options.
During the I Semester of 2010, EDM and Eskom have done some alternatives options evaluations, namely, for the medium scale projects, which its design has had in consideration the consumer needs and the level of the country increase.
The results of the evaluations done conclude to develop the Project with an option for 150 MW for the Phase I, in Ressano Garcia, full operational on the last quarter of 2012.
In addition and taking to account that the 150 MW will not maximize the use of the natural gas available to Mozambique, the Government approved a proposal of the national investor for the development of a Project with a capacity of 280 MW, with the expected date of operation at the end of 2013.
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
US$ 1300 Million

Project Name: CESUL
Construction of 1500 km transmission line, also known as the backbone transmission line, on which the development of various projects, including Benga and Mphanda Nkuwa, are dependent.
Timing for equity funds:
Demonstration of commitment at financial close
Phase 1a: end of 2011 for equity commitment:
Phase 1b: end 2012 for equity commitment: Project will be developed in two phases as PPPs, on a BOT basis.
Contact DetailsThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Power & Energy
US$ 2400 Million

Source: Project Opportunities, March 2012. CII, Export-Import Bank of India, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India: 6-56.

African countries are looking for the green oil technology. Benin has Biomass densification essentially involves two parts (a) to compact loose biomass material with pressure and (b) to maintain the product in the compressed state after removal of pressure with the project Value of USD 1 300 000. Cameroon invites a very large project for Rural Electrification project, which requires importation of all materials and accessories from India. D R Congo invites project on Jatropha Culture with the value of USD 10 Million. Malawi needs 6 Hydropower generation projects in different ranges of 300 MW, 150 MW and Up to 50MW each. Mozambique requires development of power plants in Gas-fired, Coal-fired, Hydropower, Bio-diesel, Bio-diesel Plant, Production of coking coal and thermal coal. Namibia is looking for Biomass Briquettes making from sustainable waste materials for energy generation.

Conclusion
Overall, India has geographic advantages in linking the African and Asian continents. There is a need to develop energy trade between Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean route in building Indo-Africa trade and economic relations in a comprehensive way. Indian investors are committed to work with the African energy sector with the understanding of transfer of technology. Along with it, African human resource gets short and long term training programmes related to energy sector that will help in receiving the transfer of technology. Reliance is working with this understanding in oil and gas sector of Nigeria. The elected governments in Africa wooed Indian investors by assuring guaranteed protection on the one hand and the investors reciprocates it positively on the other hand. It is a genuine concern of India global energy policy that draws a parallel thinking vis-à-vis developed countries.

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References
Africa Oil. http://www.iimcal.ac.in/research/download/OFDI_Partha-pal.pdf: accessed on 9 March 2011.
Energy Information Administration, US Government, January 18, 2006.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.html, accessed on 15 March 2012.
Power, 2005. IBEF (CII).

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About Authors
imgDr. Suresh Kumar serves as Associate Professor, Department of African Studies, University of Delhi, India. He is the Chief Editor of Africaindia.org (http://www.africaindia.org) and Indian Journal of African Studies and traveled widely in East Asia, Europea, South America and Africa for research and teaching assignments. The author is active as member in the Africa Committee of Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), an executive member of Indo-Africa Chamber of Commerce in India (IACCI) and member in the Advisory Group of India-Africa of Indian Council of World Affairs. About 125 articles have been published in different journals and newspapers. He has actively contributed his opinions on India and Africa in the different international media channels of BBC, Aljazeera (English), ABC, Yomiuri Shinbun (Japan) and All India Radio.   Dr. Gajendra Singh is the Assistant Professor in the Department of History, Satyawati College, University of Delhi. He successfully finished his research from Department of African Studies.
Ms. Jyoti is the Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, Post Graduate Government College, Sector-11, Chandigarh. She successfully finished her research activities on Africa in joint collaborations.

Last Updated on Monday, 25 November 2013 13:04