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Thursday, 21 November 2013 10:53

Global Warming and Solution through Yoga for Environment Sustainability

Dr. Suresh Kumar

Subhash Anand (ed). Eco-Development: Global Perspective.
Research India Press. New Delhi (ISBN 978-81-89131-46-3)

The word Yoga derived from the Sanskrit word for yujirayoga or yoke meant join together. Essentially, it means union. It is the science of uniting the individual soul with the cosmic spirit through physical disciplines (postures) and mental disciplines (meditation). Patanjali explained this word in short that Yoga is the cessation of mind. Yoga is the austerity of mind. The Yoga is the end product of history of ancient India spirituality and here one question arises that how the yoga technique is helpful to solve the issue of global warming? Before one move further to elaborate this query, it is better to understand the meaning of global warming in present context.
Industrialization led to colonialism that came to an end with the result of nuclear bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The outcome of cold war period (1948-1990) led to Arms race and the industrialization in the developed countries. As a result, there is increasing stress on the Earth’s ecosystem (60% of the Earth’s ecosystem has been degraded in the past 50 years) and consumption of natural resources is expected to rise to 170% of the Earth’s bio-capacity by 2040. The environment alarm bell has now sounded about this nexus of business houses and promotion of consumerism (through media and print advertisements) and the positive news is that after decades of denial or inaction, many governments have now made low-carbon and inclusive growth a national priority.
Brundtland Commission’s defines the term environment sustainable and mentions, “Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable-to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WBCSD. 2009:4).” This is the time to understand the real meaning of Climate Change because of progressively degrading environments and iniquitous social structures of the global community seriously felt the threat to mankind’s future. More than 4.840 billion people, comprising more than two-thirds of the world's population, live in poor nations and bear the severest brunt of these environmental and societal imbalances. The change in weather, increasing drought situation, rising of the water levels in the Oceans, less or no snow fall on the mountains, sudden floods due to heavy rains, hot weather (up to 50 degree) in summer and less cold in winter and melting of the glaciers around the Africa and Asia can be termed as Climate Change. It further threatens flora, fauna, forests and wildlife may lead to over industrial, vehicular air & chemical pollution, deforestation and disappearance of graded land areas. The impact of climate change on rain fed agricultural sector is quite complex, especially the adverse effect on soil, biodiversity and ecological regimes in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
It is the time to drive forward with a shared understanding of what is meant by sustainable, responsible consumption from the yoga perspective. The global community faces the rising fuel prices, serious issues of hunger and poverty, scarcity of water, arable land and other natural resources questions human consumption and how one may deal with it has never been more crucial. Dr. Jai Gopal Sharma stated that ‘progressively degrading environments and iniquitous social structures seriously threaten the future of mankind. Exacerbating these challenges today is the new danger posed by global warming and climate change. The developing countries bear the most severe brunt of these environmental and societal imbalances. It warns the post 1990 unstoppable competition for survival in the liberal market economy either to stop and think for the future of the coming generations or face the natural destruction of the Mammalian Class and natural environment.’3 The yoga should attract all the democratic governments in the world towards more sustainable choices and sharing this information with common man. This information should act as a trigger for innovation and ultimately set the trend towards sustainable environment through yoga among global community.
Yoga concerns around the world should address global challenges related to shortage of resources, water scarcity, climate change and loss of biodiversity and planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of environment and forestry programmes by connecting it with yogic sutras.
Today, there is an urgent need to analyze the drivers of consumption patterns & impacts on the body, heart, mind and soul. The definition of sustainable products and lifestyles to formulate actionable responses towards this challenge should be explained through yoga. Keeping climate change in mind, the global population should adopt the sustainable production and consumption policy learning from yoga and should practice in the society as a whole.

Yoga and Issue of Climate Change
Yoga senses and controls the ambitions and physical matter of life and provides the platform for self-discipline. The climate change is the result of uncontrollable consumerism that promotes indiscipline and no regulation in life. It’s now a well known fact that none of us can prosper in an environment that is polluted with noxious gases. Climate change is indeed making temperature rise and the negative impact is felt in agriculture, livelihood, forests, water bodies and the health of people. Since the problem is global in scale and impact, every society can play the saviour in their region and can tackle the problem on multiple fronts. The Yoga has eight elements such as:

1. Yamas
In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali defined five yamas or ways to moral conduct with universe. They are nonviolence, truth & honesty, non-stealing, meditation, and non-possessiveness.

i) Nonviolence
The yamas persuades everybody to get rid of painful life and when a person is free from all pains, he or she attains the position of yamas. Today, the world community faces War on Terrorism that has resulted in bombing in Somalia, D R Congo, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. The use of thousand pounds of bombs is exacerbating the violence in the society that leads to climate devastation. Mahabharata mentions,

This means that the humanity should respect the feelings of all living creatures and behave with love and grace. Non-violence is the biggest weapon to solve all the disputes in the world. USA trained millionaire Osama Bin Laden and was sent to Afghanistan to destroy USSR army. Today, USA is searching the same Osama in the world and destroying the different parts of Afro-Asia region mentioned above through its weapon industries. The distribution of military technology includes chemical weapons, biological weapons, nuclear warhead missile technology, nuclear waste from power plants for nuclear bomb technology, nuclear trigger, etc. It is the time to respect non-violence and invite all these terrorist groups’ leaders on the world stage to put their opinion that will help to establish a non-violent world and environment sustainability. Moreover, “Law and love then, are not alternatives. Mercy and forgiveness are binding and obligatory, not optional extras” (Winn: 28-30).   There is need to understand the relation between the violent terrorism and the weapon industries of the developed world. As a student of political economy, this terrorism market strengthens oneself to show the reality to the global society by understanding the thumb rule playing behind it. This thumb-rule is:
(War + Terror) 2 = War2 + Terror2 + 2War Terror that suits the contemporary environment of capitalist monopolization. The political economy of Post 9/11 here refers to

  • War technology in partnership with Terror vigorously working in the global market acting as a whole square.
  • It is equal to the War2 means boosting the weapon industries. One may check the annual turn over (Balance Sheet) of these industries, which strengthen this argument transparently.
  • Terror2 a label or brand name appropriately is using for the market advertisement. All kinds of media, different web sites and information technology uses in promoting their market.
  • The 2 WarTerror promotes the war industries in lieu of wide advertisement in the international media gets approval for the US Armaments markets on the globe.

It signifies that more the (War + Terror) 2 technology work as war against terrorism formula, enhancing the armament market as a result equalizes (=) War2 + Terror2 + 2War Terror.
The Post 9/11 usages start with the (War + Terror) 2, is the brainchild of Rumsfeld (former Defence Secretary under President Bush) and Dick Cheney under the leadership of George Bush. The industry of private military organization lays with the dreams of bureaucratic imperialist such as: Under Secretary of Defence Pete Aldridge (Aerospace Corporation), Army Secretary Thomas White (Enron), Navy Secretary Gordon England (General Dynamics) and Air Force Secretary James Roche (Northrop Grumman) all are part and parcel of Bush team (Rebuilding).
This armament market involves private sector, emphasize covert actions, sophisticated weapons systems, greater use of special force & contractors.
The formula (War + Terror) 2 = War2 + Terror2 + 2War Terror (Armaments Market) and the sign equal has lots of significance. The sign = executes its programmes through Halliburton building single largest Defence contractor of US State. The March 2003 witnessed US private contractors army of approximate 100,000 landed in Iraq, first time in the history of US imperialist tactics (Renae), which fulfills the criteria of this formula.
This formula gets a bulletproof shield made in USA that acts on the name of democratic set up or humanitarian assistance.

The new Pentagon policy (after 9/11 episode) would draw heavily on the private sector, emphasize covert actions, sophisticated weapons systems, and greater use of special force and contractors. It means, “the widespread use of private contractors in every aspect of war, including combat.   Earlier, during the 1991 Gulf war, Dick Cheney- Rumsfeld’s close ally- was Secretary of Defence. One in ten people deployed in the war zone at that time was a private contractor, a ratio Cheney was doggedly determined to ratchet up. Before he departed in 1993, Cheney commissioned a study from a division of the company he would eventually head, Halliburton, on how to quickly privatize the military bureaucracy” (Jeremy. 2007: xv). Halliburton would create an industry for itself servicing US military operations abroad with seemingly infinite profit potential. The more aggressively the US expended its military reach, the better for Halliburton’s business.
By 1995, Cheney was at the helm of Halliburton building what would become the US government’s single largest Defence contractor. President Clinton largely embraced the privatization agenda, and Cheney’s company-along with other contractors-was given lucrative contracts during the Balkans conflict in the 1990s and the 1999 Kosovo war. This private company attracted the retired senior military US officials and got a contract to train Croatian military in its secessionist war against Serb-denominated Yugoslavia in mid 1990s by Clinton administration (Jeremy. 1997: xvi).
There is a need to read between lines. Osama and its Al-Qiyada were used as trained military wing against Soviet in Afghanistan. It is some sort of unofficial private army involved the local people of the land and fought a war against Russian army. CIA trained Osama and his people and US provided all kinds of sophisticated armaments of billions. Today, “The men killed in Fallujah were not members of the U.S. military nor were they civilians as many news outlets reported. They were highly trained private soldiers sent to Iraq by a secretive mercenary company based in the wilderness of North Carolina. You like to know the name.  Its name is Blackwater USA’ (Jeremy. 1997: iii). 
Today, comparatively US private military organization is more faithful than Osama. Osama was used and billions of $ were benefited to armament industries. Today Osama is dangerous to multinational weapon industry. US capitalist imperialist recognized the danger this time and approved US made private army organization. Overall, a market economy based on investment demands a sure profit on the sake of any name of organization such as Al-Qiyada, Blackwater, etc. under the title of war against terrorism, democratic set up, humanitarian assistance (like in Somalia), etc. etc.  
The bureaucratic imperialist pair (of Cheney and Rumsfeld) pressed Clinton and now President Obama to enact regime change in Iraq, and its principles, which advocated ‘a policy of military strength and moral clarity’ (Rebuilding. 2000: emphasis mine).  The 9/11 attacks boosted the private military dreams for infinite profit and Osama became their trademark in justifying the operations. The swift defeat of the Taliban in Afghanistan emboldened Rumsfeld and the administration as they began planning for the centerpiece of the neo-conservative crusade like Iraq.


Strength of Blackwater Military (Power Point)

  • Total land area                                                               7000 acre
  • Database of former, retired-----                                        21,000
  • Aircraft including helicopter gunship                                  20
  • Training of federal and local law enforcement agents         > 10,000
    And troops from friendly foreign nations
  • Intelligence officials including senior ex-military                 Division (> 10,000)
  • Bank reserve in government contracts                               $500 million
  • Black budget operations for US intelligence agencies           $uncounted mill. /billions*
  • (Including CIA) or private corporations/individuals and foreign Governments)
  • Blackwater Personal Security Wages                                 $600-1150**

* Black budget operations includes coup de tat, killing of any country Prime Minister, President or Foreign Minister or any important personality and change of governments.

** John Haylar, Fortunes of War, Fortune (Weekly), July 26, 2004.  http: //money.cnn.com/magazine/fortune/.
Source: Jeremy Scahill. 2007. Blackwater, Serpent’s tail. UK: xviii-xix.

Blackwater Military Strength today has more than 23,000 private soldiers deployed in nine countries, including inside the US. It maintains a database of 21,000 former Special Force troops, soldiers, and retired law enforcement against on which it could call at a moment’s notice. Blackwater has a private fleet of more than twenty aircraft, including helicopter gunship and a surveillance blimp division. It’s 7,000-acre headquarters in Moyock, North Carolina, is the world’s largest private military facility. Figure-1 shows the details of the private military organization.
Pointing out towards the violent leaders, it is rightly said,

The donation of land, gold, animals and food grain are not considered the biggest one but the donation towards life (Pran-daan) is the biggest donation in life. The international community should check the private weapons industries and stop USA violent military operations abroad with seemingly infinite profit potential on the one hand and promote the yoga for the peaceful development of the state.
Similarly, the history of former USSR in Afghanistan was against the sustainable environment.  Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1986 and called back USSR forces. KGB account nearly $100 million and drives of fifteen thousand solider. But the Afghan people suffered (Figure-4) in it. As per the estimates,
US Neocolonial Expenditure in Afghanistan for Self- Development

  • Afghan people killed                                                                                     One million
  • Afghan people Maimed                                                                                 Three million
  • Afghan people in Refugee Camps in neighboring countries                               Five Million
    Source: Stephen Kinzer. 2006. Overthrow. Times Books. New York: 271.
    As a result, Afghanistan turned to largest training ground, munitions dump for foreign terrorists and world largest poppy field. US shifted its focus completely to Gulf war against Iraq. Here the million dollar question with the reader is: Do you think it was/is a victory of USSR or US against Taliban or to pacify the victim families of 11 September WTC incident? Al-Qaeda was a direct result of America’s corrupt foreign policy. Similarly, the Blackwater worked in Afghanistan under the name of Special Force Group (SFG). The latest skill of aircraft, SFG dress and other technology features are elaborated to fight against terrorism, but without any international law or permission; working as a Secret Mission. When US first focused her energies on annihilating al-Qaeda, it elevated their prestige. Bin Laden wasn’t an extremist in the beginning; US made him a hero, then martyr. CIA wanted US to rebuild the Muslim economies, moderate their governments, and change their people’s attitudes. Rebuilding Afghanistan cost the American taxpayers twenty billion dollars. Or else the world as we know it will cease to exist.
    The 30.15 Sutras of Kautilya has pointed out, 

  • Non-violence is the best solution to save and strengthen the life.  The donation towards life (Pran-daan) is the wisest technique to strengthen green environment friendly world. Gandhi said that the avoidance of harm to any living creature in thought or deed. This is the only way to solve the established problems and work for the sustainable environment.

ii) Truth & Honesty
The global humanity listens, speaking and reading about truth since their tender age but failed to adopt in real life. The sole reason behind it that everybody is running behind to collect unlimitedly worldly material things whole heartedly twenty four hours, which leads to think, speak and implement a true lie in life. Simply speaking tells no lies for instance, cheating on your income taxes falls into this category.  There is no single example in the world history that glimpses the person attains Moksha on the basis of true lie.
Speaking honestly does not consider a noble act that raises the question that how, where and when to use the truth. The best way to initiate the truth sutra is the home.  It is the time to speak truly with parents, husband, wife, children, family and lead gradually towards society. Any human being by practicing truth in life will able to know the real importance of any worldly physical material thing and self-knowledge. By attaining any material thing and explaining its real importance in life, is a real difficult task for any human being that is accepted by all.
Comparing to it, a liar person never become a brave person in life. One fearful person cannot concentrate in life. One cannot become a wise person without full concentration. How cleverly a liar person behave, his acts are caught by a honest person in this world only. It is rightly pointed out that   

A person can achieve anything any life by speaking true and practice honesty in life. Generally, the people lie before the government that spoils the environment of that concerned offices. It further leads to attract towards illegal means to earn more and more money.  Similarly, the nexus of liar-ness between the big industrial houses and the government today reveals the secret of destroying the Climate due to last fifty years blind race for endless run. The repercussions of climate change are visible more or less in the whole world. There are increasing reports of drought, rising sea levels, eroding coastlines, melting glaciers, dry rivers and complete breakdown of ecosystems and human sustenance in the developing world. The consequences of global warming have led to rapid climate change. These impacts are inextricably linked to the broader concern on environmental degradation, natural resource consumption and sustainability. It’s now a well known fact that the impact of climate change knows no borders and businesses, governments and individuals across countries. The issue of environment sustainability needs to implement a true and honest policy by involving big business houses and governments, which will seek to deliver solutions to climate change problems through adaptation and mitigation strategies, recommending policy changes, showcasing innovative research and industrial best practices. The Yoga programmes suggest to the well-aware learned community to adopt a comprehensive policy such as:

  • Sustainable use of natural resources, including water and environment conservation, and reduction of direct impact on environment or reduction of carbon footprint through yogic sutras.
  • Responsible control on production of industries that rely heavily on natural resources.
  • Yogic application to ensure reduction in carbon footprint through walk in daily life that will help in minimum use of patrol or diesel vehicles.

iii) Non-stealing (Asteya)
It means that never touch any body material things, don’t provoke others to take the things and never have any desire to keep anybody’s things is non-stealing. This may pose problem in implementing in real life in today’s world. The owner’s consent is must before taking anything is the real solution (that includes the material things between husband and wife). With consent, one may take the material things even in his or her absence. Following are the benefits of non-stealing that directly deals with the environment sustainability such as:

  • A person practices non-stealing is full of peace, happiness and lives patiently. This practice is against the consumer culture that directly hit the blind race of industries products. One may live happily, peacefully and prosper life by practicing non-stealing in life.
  • The consumer culture leads to stealing. Numbers of youth are caught red handed stealing shirts, trousers, shoes, mobile phones and other material things in the big malls through out the world. Non-stealing gives importance to honesty and curbing corruption in life.
  • The practice of non-stealing explains the efficient and proper use of the natural things in a best way. It will stop the misuse of natural material and help in sustaining the environment.
  • A person of non-stealing gets respect in the hearts of everybody that will help to control the consumer cum market culture.

The practice opposite to non-stealing is going on in the world in general and newly born countries from former Soviet region, Afghanistan, Pakistan and others in particular. Blackwater forces of USA were contracted to work in the heart of the oil and gas-rich Caspian Sea region, where they would quietly train a force modeled after the Navy SEALs and establish a base just north of the Iranian border as part of a major US move in what veteran analysts in the region call the Great Game (Jeremy. 2007: 167). The Caspian Sea is believed to House well over 100 billion barrels of oil (John). US right from Clinton period envisioned a plan to control Caspian Sea oil through pipeline from Tajikistan through Afghanistan. It estimates a project of more than 230 billion barrels of oil in the region-eight times the proven US reserves (Candance: 2005).  “To cultivate this project, US increased military aid to Georgia and waived the section of Congressional Act and allow US military aid to Azerbaijan in 2002 and support other facilities to counter international terrorism. US planned $ 135 million security plan in Georgia and Blackwater got the contract initially of $2.5 million on the name of “training aids and armament training devices.” Blackwater joined a US corporate landscape in Baku that included other Bush administration-linked corporations such as Bechtel, Halliburton, Chevron-Taxaco, Unocal and Exxon Mobil. The announced salary was $130,000 to $150,000 annually” (Jeremy. 2007: 171-74). In the mean time, encouraged by its cozy relationship with Washington, Azerbaijan dramatically increased its military spending by 70 percent in 2005 to $300 million. By the end of 2006, its had reached a whopping $700 million with the country’s president pledging it would soon grow to $ 1 billion annually (Radio). In the event of a US war against Iran, Azerbaijan would play a central role. The massive eleven hundred mile oil pipeline would transfer oil out of the Caspian and $3.6 billion pipeline project funded by World Bank, US Export-Import Bank and the overseas Private Investment Corporation and spearheaded by a consortium led by oil giant BP along with US companies Unocal, Conoco-philips, and Hess (Eurasia:2005). ‘US had invested in the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk and the White House called it the largest single US investment in Russia. But once the new BTC pipeline became active in 2005, Bush publicly encouraged companies producing oil (in Kazakhstan) and else where in the Caspian region (to) embrace BTC as a gateway to global markets’ (White House: 2001).
Indeed, the Cheney energy task force had envisioned a scheme to allow multinational oil giants like Chevron and Exxon operating in Kazakhstan under the Russian pipeline to redirect oil through the BTC pipeline, effectively taking away from Russia’s profit (Jeremy: 177-8) and this plan lay out in May 2001. Azerbaijan human rights record is poor and member of the security forces committed numerous human rights abuses” (US, Human Rights: 2006). This is another example of stealing.
Blackwater and US Air Force agreed to $ 34.8 million contract for Presidential Airways to provide short take-off and landing flights in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Pakistan. But Presidential Airways said that report “was concluded in only two weeks and contains numerous errors, misstatements and unfounded assumptions (The Washington). Even then Blackwater in both these cases tried hard to get immunities as they are doing the armed force duty but court refused by saying that Blackwater’s status is profit making private company and responsibilities for its actions (Jeremy: 254).
That’s why, US senate approved Iraq and Afghanistan war cost of more than $300 billion (The Commercial). By June 2005, the Defense Department of US had 149 prime contracts with 77 contractors in Iraq worth app. $42.1 billion (US: 2005). The US government had paid Blackwater at least $73 million for its Katrina work by June 2006 (Joanne: 2006). The whole exercise involves in the stealing of natural resources at the cost of environment devastation.
It is rightly mentioned that

The concept of stealing, illegal occupation and misuse of natural resources leads to climate change. It applies on the US practical policies despite whatever the United States federal statute that defines terrorism as “violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that . . . appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping” (US Code. 2331).

United States federal statute that defines terrorism US Code in Practice

violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that . . . appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

This US code practices terrorism honestly on
the other countries conducting violent acts on
people (Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, etc),

(ii) to influence the policy of a government by
intimidation or coercion; or

influenced the policy & conduct of government through missiles (Turkmenistan, Iran, North Korea, etc.)

(iii) to affect the conduct of a government by
assassination or kidnapping” (US Code).

killing the President(Najibullah in Afghanistan
and       Saddam Hussein in Iraq) or Prime Minister
is the reality of US Code about terrorism.

As a result, Today, all the militant groups (Liberation of Tamil tigers Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka, former militants of Khalistan (Punjab, India) settled in US and Canada) gets an good offer to start earning $300-6000 per day and enjoy legal status, boon and blessings of White House. As per Iraq experience, private army were officially hired by the Department of Homeland Security to operate in the US Gulf, billing the federal government $950 a day per Blackwater soldier and the company had ranked in more than $ 70 million in federal hurricane related contracts-about $243,000 a day in less than a year (Joanne: 2006). This imperialist war ideology through private army has no end. It is rightly said,

means that the trader class cheated the customers in day light and a thief uses dark for stealing. The colonialism and practice of neo-colonial policies implements the policy of stealing natural and human resources till today that go ahead to over production of material goods and supply in the market ultimately leads to climate change. Today, politics and economics become more intertwined. The post second world war has a major impact domestically in the developed world armament market. It created a permanent arms economy, which stimulated heavy industry and encouraged research in electronics, aircraft, chemistry and space. This industry produced goods whose sole purchaser was the American state. Nothing could be supplied to other parts of the world without the sanction of State. All the defense monopolies are thus guaranteed an automatic profit. This has meant that defense contractors will do almost anything to safeguard their investments. A symbiosis developed between the defense industry, leading to the existence of a powerful military-industrial-political nexus. “The Pentagon budget increased from $ 38 billion to almost $ 400 billion in 2003 because of infinite war” (Tariq. 2003: xiv).
Overall, the production of material things as per the constitution comes under non-stealing but corruption, theft, using heavy chemicals for more destruction and disrespecting constitution norms refers to stealing impinge on climate change. In addition to it,

explains that Atmani is the self earned money that is the outcome of  hard work. There is a need to stop the greediness and mine---mine ( ) that is known  () as the real non-stealing. Those who sacrificed the concept of mine and use the things properly, they have considered practice of true non-stealing in life. The balanced diet and proper distribution of food to all as per the need is the best practice in life. This will check on self-greediness and keep the humanity away from consumerism that is a move for sustainable environment.
iv) Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya relates to purity, chastity and non-lust. The purity of a brahmachari (a person who adopts brahmacharya) includes heart, words and body. A brahmachari possesses:

  • A strong body, attractive and healthy.
  • The body power goes through out the life.
  • The person work efficiently in minimum time and shows his/her wisdom.
  • The body resistance against any disease increases.
  • The body power strengthens soul power.
  • The body attracts towards non-violence.

All these points are prerequisite to control this attraction towards this physical materialistic world among human beings through out the world that will helpful for the environmental sustainability. The yoga should develop this awareness programme among youth and explain their body and mental power to fight against the challenges of the climate change and spread this message in the school children, colleges and universities and society. The yoga initiatives or steps to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change should be advertised in the press and media. Mahrishi Ved Vyas defines brahmacharya in short by saying:

It means to control on sexual desires and patience to . Those who cannot have self-control are known as Vahbichar (a person full of lust). The misuse of science and technology through internet pornography, advertisement of power capsules and unlimited power through it has worsened the natural environment. The misuse of S & T in the industries is seen everywhere such as the Japanese are changing tooth brush every week because of over production of it. It leads to degradation of environment. The present young generation never uses the Neem, Eucalyptus and plant branches for tooth brush. As a result, one may observe their sitting with the dentist in their tender ages. Similarly, all the metropolitan and big cities organizes weekend night dance and drink (Liquor) party and waste money, human resource, thousands watts of electricity and getting nothing.  The practice of brahmacharya is the only solution to keep away this physical material worldly attraction.  It is truly stated that .It means all these attraction weakens oneself will power. All these lusts cannot give physical and mental peace in anybody’s life. The life full of limitless greed & more greed leads only to grab more and more material things in life and one can see the consequences of it through climate change.

v) Non-possessiveness (Aparigraha)
It means that all unimportant physical material as well as ideas should be kept away from the heart, words and body is known as Aparigraha or Non-greed. The non-possessiveness explains that a human being should free from greed, hoarding and collecting. Does human being really need more shoes, another car or to hog the conversation every time you see your friends? Make human being life as simple as possible.
There is a big debate on need and greed. A person need is other person’s greed. A human being essential need relates to Bread, Cloth and Shelter. The role of education and other qualification strengthens the human being’s professional life but the essential needs are the same. Similarly, the agricultural land is used for the production of wheat, rice, cotton, fruits, flowers and other items but the over production on that land leads to infertility of land. The use of more and more land for the rapid urbanization is a danger to the forests land and leads to climate change. This change promotes high weather temperature, no or less rain, winter and other seasons and shortages of every natural environment. This is the result of possessiveness. The possessiveness towards violent solution to all the problems in the state and society in the developing world leads to chaos and devastation of humanity on the one hand and ruining the natural climate here on the other hand. Overall, the mental satisfaction over greed and possessiveness is the only yogic solution that will save and promote the environment sustainability.

2. Niyamas
In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali defined five niyamas or observances relating to inner discipline and responsibility, how one treat oneself. They are purity, contentment, self-discipline, study of the sacred text, and living with the awareness of God. Today, the niyamas is the best self rule to the present before the industrial sector technology innovations that have driven the over-growth standing as challenge to the climate change in the world. Peter Senge’s book on Necessary Revolution highlights that a collective awakening to new possibilities that changes every thing over time---is the Renaissance of Industrial Revolution--- what is starting to happen around the world today (CII. 2009:9). There is an urgent need to see a new industrial revolution that will be Clean, Lean and Mean. Clean because of climate consequences, water stress, and economic impacts. Lean, because it will be characterized by a low carbon economy and eco-efficiency, uncertainty around access to energy and resources, high resources prices and government regulations on resource efficiency. Mean, because transformational change and destructive innovations will create winners and losers. Bjorn Stigson of World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) beautifully articulates the challenge for companies. He says that business cannot succeed in societies that fail and has a strong interest in helping build thriving societies which are good places for doing business (WBCSD. 2009:7).

The rule of self-discipline for the business community is making investment decisions that will impact the climate issue for next few decades into the future. Companies therefore need clarity on the policy framework within which they do business will lead to contentment. An important element for the post-2012 international framework will be the establishment of a quantifiable, long-term (50-year) emissions pathway for the management of global Green House Gas (GHG) emissions (CII. 2009:14), which needs purity, contentment and self-discipline. The magnitude of change required demands of yoga participation by all stakeholders of society – from government to business to civil society. To succeed, they must work together. The next few years are critical for establishing policies to deal with energy security, competitiveness, mitigation and adaptation to climate impacts, and they will determine our faith in self-discipline, study of the sacred text, and living with the awareness of God. It will help in proper utilization of energy infrastructure and emission patterns for many decades.
Moreover, instead of looking at climate changes as only an environmental problem, where a maximum company can do is to reach zero pollution is not sufficient. It is time to look at how a company also can promote yoga discipline and become part of the solution by proving self-discipline. It is important to the developing world business community to understand and adjust the requirements of future consumers who increasingly demands for ethical choices. Overlooking this trend would be shortsighted and a risk for the industries in the developing world. Kirsi Sormunen, Vice President & Head of Environmental Activities, Nokia highlights, “Companies can also influence consumer behaviour towards more sustainable choices, both through product development and consumer information. It is our aim that this trend analysis on sustainable consumption will act as a trigger for innovation and ultimately for more sustainable consumption (WBCSD.2009:5).” It means that the Aparigraha or non-greed and self-discipline in life will lead to sustainable choices.  This development offers great potential as a driver for innovative product among the educated global civil society not merely in the sense of green products, but it offers consumer related solutions that link product quality to the shared responsibility of producers and consumers and promote need among consumers and not greed. The self-discipline to environmental footprint of the product in terms of production and disposal in the developing world will become more important with the proper use of the product with respect to its environmental impact that step will be decisive to promote purity and contentment in the lives of individuals, society and states. The industrial groups of whole world should focus on the use of Yoga in real life and work more closely with consumers, communicating top performance, added value of sustainable products and enabling behavioral changes accordingly. WBCSD shares that the leading businesses of the future will be those whose core businesses directly address global challenges and should include propagating Yoga Sutras. The investment of the Yoga Sutras and the industrial growth need to define their role in tomorrow’s society. The leadership of Yoga Sutras should work with the industrial sector in driving forward a shared understanding of what is meant by sustainable, responsible consumption from a business perspective and addressing the global challenges related to shortage of resources, water scarcity, climate change and loss of biodiversity.

3. Asanas
It means to fix the body like statue, having happiness position and doing meditation is known as Asanas in the different Yoga postures. Patanjali said, “The posture of yoga is steady and easy. The ancient yogis used asana to prepare the body for meditation. To sit for a lengthy time in contemplation required a supple and cooperative body. If you are free of physical distractions, control the body then you can also control the mind. Posture is mastered by freeing the body and mind from tension and restlessness and meditating on the infinite” (Patanjali. 2010). The asanas strengthens the physical and mental strength that helps the human body to live peacefully, happily, living with minimum material needs in this world. The asanas strengthens all the five yamas that persuades the human beings to live their lives having moral behavior with the creator yama. Probably the most famous pose is the lotus position is pronounced as AH-sah-nahs.

4. Pranayama
The Prana means air and Ayama means to stop. It is a method of controlling prana or life force through the regulation of breathing. The pranayama keeps all the evils away from human body and even finished evil-greed such as Avidya, Asmita, Raag and Dwesha and Abhinivesha. ‘The Avidya means ignorance, which is forgetfulness. It helps in forgetting of the self-attachment to the material things around the world. The ignorance is the misconception of human being’s true reality having myth-faith in the temporary eternal, the impure is the pure and pleasure to be painful. This false representation of reality is the root evil that produces the four others’ (Yoga site: emphasis mine).

The Asmita ‘means the ego, individuality and I-am-ness. Asmita is the identification of oneself only with his/her ego. Human beings create self-image of themselves that believe on us; means I is Us. This self-image can contain both external (I am poor) and internal (I am a bad person) false projections. The Raaga and Dwesha relates to (the attachments and aversions) the physical objects remain in the senses. One should not come under the control of these two as indeed both are two stumbling blocks on one's path of Self-realization. When the expectation is not fulfilled, the attraction turns into repulsion and hatred (dwesha). In either case one suffers from insecurity, stress, anxiety and fear of various sorts. Finally, the Abhinivesha means survival instinct. Abhinivesha or love for earthly life is the main cause of all fears that is clinging to life and body. The attachment to physical objects, name and fame causes fear’ (Yoga site: emphasis mine).
All these evils need to control in this free market global world. Dennis Pamlin suggests that indirectly, a company becomes carbon positive when it does something that allows others to directly reduce their emissions. A supplier could, for example, sell pellets that allow a utility to move from coal power to bio-energy. A company could also sell energy efficient appliances and renewable energy equipment like solar panels. Looking at the positive contributions requires a perspective where the whole value chain is included and then both the emissions and the contribution must be assessed (Dennis Pamlin. 2008). Some companies have also realized the potential in forestry for their carbon positive status that is the slogan of Pranayama. Well thought forestry and carbon credits generate livelihood opportunities for communities managing those forests, and create carbon sinks for local emission that is the basis of Yoga Sutras.
The industrial sector technology innovations have driven the over-growth that stand as challenge before the Pranayama. The developed world needs to redefine the value and corporate value in line with its Yoga Sutras vision of a sustainable and prosperous society on the one hand and decide an optimal balance between self-regulating market mechanisms and legislative initiatives on the other hand. It is the time to unite sustainable production with sustainable consumption that needs respect to Pranayama and active participation of implementing it in the activities of their industrial houses. This participation linkage will understand current and future consumption patterns, harnessing innovation to develop more sustainable products, services and behavioral change initiative through Pranayama. The whole world community should adopt the following points that will take care of producers, consumers and society at large such as:

  • Human social systems and well being does not necessarily rely on high levels of consumption and should practice Yoga Sutras.
  • More and more Consumers are concerned about environmental, social and economic issues, and increasingly willing to act on those concerns. Consumer willingness needs awareness programme through Pranayama and motivate them to act as sustainable consumer behavior. The young generation should understand brahmacharya and keep away these elements such as availability, affordability, convenience, product performance, conflicting priorities, skepticism and force of habit.
  • Yoga idea of sustainable lifestyles should be based on informed purchasing decisions and changes in behavior of consumers that should get the support of active participation of business, governments and civil society in implementing Yoga Sutras.
  • Yoga and five niyamas should formulate a consensus on the legal, fiscal and cultural environment for sustainable business to flourish and implement in the world market.

Swami Dyanand writes that there is a need to tolerate the pains to move ahead in life. It helps everybody not to be over-dependant on all scientific gazettes in their livelihood and practice pranayama. Those who don’t believe in pranayama, cannot become a successful man in life and the yoga sutras is the best meditation. Pranayama keeps heart, mind in a peaceful position and all the impurities of life are vanished by enhancing the knowledge through it. Every human being despite their religious background may practice Pranayama because it is rightly mention that

It explains the web surrounding the life of spider, herbal medicines grown on earth, hairs grows on the body of a living person and this nature grows with the blessings of God. It means that God is one but is known with different names in different parts of the world. On the name of Devine power, there is no need to destroy the environment.

5. Pratyahara
It means that withdrawing the senses in order to still the mind as in meditation. Pratyahara is withdrawal of the senses. It occurs during meditation, breathing exercises or the practice of yoga postures. The best example of pratyahara is that honey bee house in which it is controlled by Queen Bee. When she is working, all the bees are on work, and when she sits on the house, all bees come around her and work. The same method should be used to concentrate the heart and mind, is known as pratyahara. It is further explained that

The human being should sit in the morning and remove all the mental evils came during night and do the same by sitting in the evening. It controls the lust, greed and ambitions towards physical material things among human beings.

6. Dharana
It is derived from the word dhri meaning to hold firm means to concentrate or holding the mind to one thought. The dharana involves teaching the mind to focus on one point or image. “Concentration is binding thought in one place,” says Patanjali. The goal is to still the mind gently pushing away superfluous thoughts by fixing the mind on some object such as a candle flame, a flower, or a mantra. In dharana, concentration is effortless. You know the mind is concentrating when there is no sense of time passing.  One says that

It means that a human being can remove all evils by criticizing it. By doing it, the evil be removed from the body and mind. This is the practical yogic method to get rid of all lust and greed and concentrate on dharana.
The needs towards sustainable environment may be achieved through dharana in public life. There are still differences on post Copenhagen summit among Afro-Asian-South American countries. This region envisages long-term cooperation in terms of enhanced action on reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Mitigation), and increasing the capacity to meet the consequences of climate change that had already taken place and is likely to continue to take place (Adaptation). These objectives must be supported by sufficient financial resources (Finance) and technology transfers (Technology) from developed to developing countries (Public. 2009: 2). The developing countries focus on climate change action cannot just be on current emissions. There is the equally important issue of Adaptation to Climate Change that has already taken place and will continue to take place in the foreseeable future even in the most favourable Mitigation scenarios.  This region is already subject to high degree of climate variability resulting in droughts, floods and other extreme weather events which compels all states to fix over 2 % of its GDP on Adaptation and may go up accordingly. It is suggested that the developing countries should devise a global package that:

  • commits developed countries to significant reductions in their Green House Gas emissions;
  • achieves the widest possible dissemination at affordable costs of existing climate-friendly technologies and practices; and
  • puts in place yoga sutras directing the collaborative Research & Development effort among developed and major developing countries, to bring about cost-effective technological innovations and transformational technologies, which can put the world on the road to a carbon-free economy.

7. Dhyana
It means meditation or contemplation. Uninterrupted meditation without an object is called dhyana. Concentration (dharana) leads to the state of meditation. The goal of meditation is not unconsciousness or nothingness. It is heightened awareness and oneness with the universe. There is a difference between concentration and meditation? If there is awareness of distraction, one is only concentrating and not meditating. The calm achieved in meditation spills over into all aspects of one’s life during a hectic day at work, shopping for groceries, coordinating the Halloween party at one’s child's school.

8. Samadhi

It means that state of absolute bliss, super-consciousness that is known as the State of God-union. The ultimate goal of the eightfold path to yoga is samadhi or absolute bliss. This is pure contemplation, super consciousness, in which a humanbeing and the universe are one. Those who have achieved samadhi are enlightened.

During the Samadhi all yoga sutras work together: The first five steps such as yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, and pratyahara are the preliminaries of yoga and build the foundation for spiritual life. They are concerned with the body and the brain. The last three, which would not be possible without the previous steps are concerned with reconditioning the mind. They help the yogi to attain enlightenment or the full realization of oneness.
Suggestions and Conclusion

The major challenge before the world community is to sustain biodiversity by recognizing the biodiversity-related risk and the value of ecosystem services. The developing world industrial track record in managing biodiversity should access through retention of land and other natural resources, capital, markets and skilled staff. The responsible management of biodiversity concerns can result in benefiting directly to meet consumer demand for environmentally sustainable products. This applies not only to companies that depend on primary production, such as forestry, fisheries, agriculture, oil and gas development, and mining, but to others too in the developing world. Most businesses use natural resources, such as paper, food products and clean water, in their operations. These resources are a function of a stable environment, maintained by complex interactions between diverse ranges of species. ‘Agenda 21 in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) framed in the Earth Summit, aims to bring about sustainable development in the 21st century that is, development which respects the environment while meeting presents and future social and economic aims. India was among 160 countries to sign the CBD. Both the CBD and Agenda 21 call for the private sector’s active engagement’ (CII.2009: 17). All the governments should work

It means that the rice cover provides security to rice grain at the time of separation from plant. Similarly, the ruler should punish the corrupted, cruel, black marketers, dacoits, thieves, rapists and provide security to the society.  The global community should promote firstly, the leading businesses seeking to incorporate biodiversity concerns through yogic sutras into their investment decisions, notably into the design and implementation of their business practices and supply chain management systems. It is impossible for anyone to replicate the actual ecosystem but businesses need to maintain characteristic biodiversity so that the right conditions can be created through the complex interactions in sustainable way.
Secondly, all the governments should promote the scope of the biodiversity business case extending beyond the marketing departments of companies promoting the environment and yoga as a means of improving the images of corporate brands. The areas of opportunities in Asia relates to yoga is rich in biodiversity.
The industries of Asian region can engage with biodiversity issues and make a contribution to the objectives of the CBD ranging from raising employee awareness of biodiversity issues and managing environment impacts responsibly enhancing the conservation value of habitats on landholdings, helping to fund conservation initiatives and adhering to principles of sustainable use of biodiversity and promoting yoga.
Third, there is a need to form uniform biodiversity policy under Yoga for leading companies in the world that will strengthen the approach towards biodiversity issues (Figure-II). All the major industrial houses of the world need high-quality corporate policy on board level and implement biodiversity action plans connecting with the environmental management system will work under the guidance of Yoga. ‘India has developed a number of policies and laws to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and protect the environment. The challenge now is to assess and plug the gaps in these policies and laws, and in their implementation, so that economic development processes are reoriented to protect the natural resource base and associated livelihoods. A real solution to the biodiversity challenge must include contributions by all stakeholders, from government agencies to businesses (Figure-II).

Fourth, all the states need to work under Yoga sutras (as mentioned in Figure-1) with the mutual coordination with the industrial houses. To fight against natural challenges, the governments should initiate an effective corporate team having strong footings on environmental management systems on the one hand and should focus on the proper governance practices like on the other hand. All shareholders and financial analysts will increasingly assign value to companies that prepare for and capitalize on business opportunities posed by these challenges whether from Green House Gas regulations, direct physical impacts or changes in corporate reputation.

To sum up, while climate crisis covers most of the headlines today, the simple fact that the wealth of the 200 richest people in the world exceeds the combined annual income of the world’s 2.5 billion poorest people is the result of limitless greed. Almost half of the world’s population lives on less than $ 2 per day while the average American earns $ 130 per day. The belief that economic growth alone will solve the problems of poverty is a myth created by greed and lust of the capitalist world. The climate change in the world poses a well-rehearsed complexity of challenges and opportunities, from the tangible physical constraints of changing and extreme weather patterns and sea levels, to the reputation and legal context of which boards and brands are held accountable and liable for climate disasters, or rewarded for their foresight and insight in the innovation of new market solutions. The developed world should come forward and work with one of the most populous Afro-Asian region and share the budget, R& D and transfer of technology. It is rightly said,

It means one should chew the eatable things, digestible and provide good health once it is digested. It applies on the developed world that does the things, which should be good for the society and nature and ultimately provides yogic life.



This chapter is the revised version of the paper that was presented in the second International Bali-India Yoga Festival on Global Warming and Solution through Yoga in Afro-Asia Region from 3-10 March 2010 in Bali, Indonesia. 
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About Author
The author serves as Head, Department of African Studies, University of Delhi, India. He is the Chief Editor of Africaindia.org (http://www.africaindia.org) and Indian Journal of African Studies and traveled widely in Asian and African countries for research and teaching assignments. He was a delegate of all India-Africa conclaves in Delhi and Mumbai and India-Africa Forum Summit 2008. The author is active as member in the Advisory Group set up forIndia-Afric
a Academic Forum: Partnership for Enhancing Development and Growth at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 21 May 2011 as part of the India-AU Summit p
roceedings. He is a Panel Organiser of the session India Rising Power in Africa in the 4th European Conference on Africa Studies (ECAS) on 15-17 June 2011 at Uppsala, Sweden.
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Last Updated on Monday, 25 November 2013 12:47