Energy and Power as an Emerging Sector: Mutual Interests of India and Africa.
Dr. Suresh Kumar
AFRICAN REVIEW. APRIL 2011. IACCI. MUMBAI
The availability of stable supplies of natural resources such as oil, gas, coal, uranium and others has given rise to a new emphasis on energy security in many regions of world. It evokes a wide variety of concerns of value and interest for a range of actors but it is nonetheless embedded in a state-centered way of thinking. Energy Psychosis compels to reassess the assumptions and understanding of its security and require looking for alternate sources of energy. The emerging economic vibrant middle class in India utilizes global products and has stakes in international energy market. India needs energy security to sustain economic growth of 10% and India currently imports 70% of its oil and 50% of its gas. Africa Gas reserves and production are playing an important role having reserves representing nearly 8% of global reserves. Africa reserves-to-production ratio is among the highest in the world at the current rate of production. These reserves will last 78 years. Additional value added brings to global supply and energy security is significant. New players and producers in the market enables diversifying sources of supply, just as new consumers have brought competition in the demand side.
Geopolitically, India needs energy resources as a means for securing the broader interests of foreign market, defence, social stability and upcoming political growth. India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and is one of the world’s fastest growing consumers. Estimated to be a US $ 90 billion industry, the oil and gas industry is among the largest contributors to the central and state exchequers in India sharing approximates US $ 13.58 billion. Delhi Declaration of 9th April 2008 stated that India urges the international community to give real and immediate effect to commitments especially in the areas of technology transfer. There is also need for a closer look (or re-write) at the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime to ensure cost-effective transfer of appropriate and advanced clean technologies to developing countries. The public as well as private sectors of India are investing in different fields of energy security in Africa and signing the memorandum of understanding with them giving the priority to the transfer of technology. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) has signed an agreement of Transfer of technology with Nigeria in petroleum Refining, oil and gas exploration and started the different training programmes for Nigerians. The training program of India will strengthen the African Human Resource Development providing employment opportunities to indigenous people, contribute in real economic growth and securing India’s energy security. Similarly, South Africa has started a joint venture in Jharkhand Coal Mining and agreed to share its Coking Coal to Oil technology. It is another landmark on technology transfer that will improve India’s oil requirement. This is the major difference of India’s foreign economic policies as compare to the world community that will act as gateway for sharing the energy technologies among each other and strengthen Indo-Africa fraternity.
Similarly, there is dire need of upgrades and expansion in power infrastructure in African countries with the globalization. Indian companies can help African nations to not only establish new electricity infrastructure, but also upgrade or expand existing ones. Africa needs an effective exchange of power and transmission networks at inter-regional level on the one hand and smooth supply between the African countries. India has rich experience in building a vast transmission and distribution network spread across the length and breadth of the country to facilitate power transmission from generation stations to consumers located at great distances. Africa should take this benefit of India’s experience in transmitting power from a surplus region to a deficit one.
India’s Potential in Energy Sector
India has significant reserves of coal but it is relatively poor in oil and gas resources. India does not produce more than 30 percent of its oil needs from the oilfields within its territorial boundaries. The domestic production has been stagnating at around 32 million tonnes a year. It appears that the proportion of crude demand being met from indigenous production presently is likely to decline further. Estimates suggest that by 2020, only about 25 percent of the total demand will be met internally (Report on India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025). Along with it, India offers huge opportunity in the renovation, modernization, updating and life extension of old thermal and hydropower plants. The Electricity Act 2003 requires that the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions provide incentives to generate power from renewable sources of energy as well as indicate a minimum renewable power purchase requirement for all distribution licensees (Delegate. India-Africa Project Partnership. 2005). The large market for energy from renewable sources is intended being created at a price that assures sufficient returns. OIL and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) India has ventured into deepwater exploration. It is estimated that there are hydrocarbon reserves worth 1 billion tones of oil equivalent (btoe) in the deepwater of India. The ONGC deepwater exploration programme involves an estimated investment of US $ 0.75 million per day (Power. 2005: 27). At present, it is rather an expensive investment and none of private investor is willing to take up either in individual capacity or align with ONGC.
Coal India Limited (CIL) is having the capacity of buying and selling the coal. TATA is working in the Queen marry coal mining, Australia and using the coking coal for its internal consumption. CIL is selling coking coal to retail customer like TATA. CIL is functioning with in the radius of 200 Kilometer and its South India is not taking coal from CIL and is importing through sea route. The Road and Railway transport affected in rates of coking coal and make it high. As a result, the business policy of South India companies is to getting cheap and good quality coking coal through import. Coal India Videsh and CIL are authorized to foreign investment. Primarily, they are giving priority to coking coal. Power Coal is their second priority in the mining sector. Power coal means the coal uses for power generation. India is strongly interested in the coastal area and it will be the route to get coking coal in India. Australia and South Africa are having the equi-distance and same amount through sea trade but India will get better security in South Africa. South Africa is crucial of course as compare to Australia. Australia is supplying coking coal to their steel companies and supplying to Indian steel industry as well. Indonesia is important for the non-coking coal. Indonesia doesn’t have many industries to supply it locally, that’s why they are interested in exporting the coal. There is an option to choose Africa and Australia for the coking coal. The demand of coking coal in China, Canada and USA industrial sectors is very high, which force them not to involve in the coking coal export.
Coal India Limited (CIL) started coalmines project in Zambia 7-8 years back but did not carry forward. Mittal Steel and Mittal Ispat Steel are planning to work in this sector. Mittal Ispat Steel is working in the Nigerian mines. Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. (BHEL) has forayed into Ethiopia with a $5 million order for setting up 230 K V substations on turnkey basis. BHEL outbid Chinese and other multinational companies to bag the project from the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO). ONGC, India’s most valuable company and world’s largest steel maker- Mittal steel have signed an MoU on 23 July 2005 to work together to ensure India’s energy security through overseas acquisition particularly in Africa. CIL is examining some coking coal mining blocks in Africa. CIL favored the formation of a subsidiary on the lines of ONGC Videsh, for carrying out its overseas mining activities and a note on this had already been sent to Coal Ministry (The Hindu. 2005).
Similarly, the energy and hydrocarbon areas, the revenue windfalls and terms of trade gains to African oil and gas producers would not probably have been there without Chinese and Indian economies guzzling hydrocarbons to power their economic growth. ‘Africa energy dimension is important for India’s vital energy security needs. It is rightly being pursued through all possible instruments such as long-term purchasing agreements, FDI in exploration and production of oil and gas among others. India-Africa share to foster this new win-win partnership in the true spirit of what UNCTAD refers to as Co-development’ (India-Africa Hydrocarbon. 2007).
India-Africa combination may share energy sector and work each other as indispensable partner. India has drawn up a road map to intensify cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector with African countries. It identifies the broad areas of cooperation in this field such as:
· exploration, refining & production,
· stepping up crude oil imports & exports of petro-products by India,
· retail marketing of fuels & lubricants by Indian companies in Africa, and
· training of technical & managerial personnel of African nations in hydrocarbon industry management.
Commercial Energy Production in Africa
India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and is one of the world’s fastest growing consumers. Estimated to be a US $ 90 billion industry, the oil and gas industry is among the largest contributors to the central and state exchequers in India. Its share approximates US $ 13.58 billion. Africa holds over nine percent of the world’s reserves, most of which are still undiscovered that presents a huge opportunity. Table-1 highlights that India has 5.459 billion barrels of oil and gas reserve as compare to Africa’s 117.482 billion barrels on 1st January 2009. The natural gas in India is having 31.755 trillion cubic feet as compare to Africa’s 504.211 trillion cubic feet mentioned in Table-1. India is promoting the industry through investments, healthy competition and an institutionalized regulatory regime.
Multi-pronged initiatives and actions have been taken by India to address the gap in energy and the non-availability of energy resources. These actions are yielding results in this sector. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) India has ventured into deepwater exploration. It is estimated that there are hydrocarbon reserves worth 1 billion tones of oil equivalent (btoe) in the deepwater of India. The ONGC deepwater exploration programme involves an estimated investment of US $ 0.75 million per day (Oil and Gas. 2005: 3). ONGC Videsh has the mandate to invest in overseas are being Table-1 Africa (World) Proved1 Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates
evaluated by the Government. Companies are aggressively pursuing overseas markets. With over 3 decades of experience in developing countries, “ONGC Mittal Energy Ltd (OMEL) finalized the investment proposals for setting up a 15 million tonnes per annum export-oriented refinery, a 2,000 MW power plant and railway lines in the African country. The refinery would have an initial capacity of 5 million tonnes and would
CountryOil (Billion Barrels)Oil (Billion Barrels)Oil (Billion Barrels)Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet)
BP Statistical Review2
Year-End 2007 Oil & Gas Journal3
January 1, 2009 World Oil4
Year-End 2007 BP Statistical Review2
Year-End 2007 CEDIGAZ5
January 1, 2009 Oil & Gas Journal3
January 1, 2009 BP Statistical Review2
Equatorial Guinea 1.755 1.100 1.705 NSR 3.885 1.300 3.400
Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.html: accessed on 7th March 2011.
NSR- Not Separately Reported
1. Proved reserves are estimated quantities that analysis of geologic and engineering data demonstrates with reasonable certainty are recoverable under existing economic and operating conditions.
2. BP p.l.c., BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2008, except United States. Oil includes crude oil, gas condensate, and natural gas liquids. United States oil data, including both crude oil and natural gas liquids, and United States natural gas data are from the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2007 Annual Report, DOE/EIA-0216(2007), (February 2009).
3. PennWell Corporation, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 106.48 (December 22, 2008). Oil includes crude oil and condensate.
4. Gulf Publishing Company, World Oil, Vol. 229, No.9 (September 2008). Oil includes crude oil and condensate but excludes natural gas liquids.
5. Centre International d’Information sur le Gaz Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux (CEDIGAZ), Natural Gas in the World, End of July 2008 (Electronic Database).
be expanded to 15 MT. The investments are part of a mega deal between state-run Oil and Natural Gas Corporation and Nigerian government, wherein OMEL would create the infrastructure and the African country would give them oil blocks (The Times of India. 2006). OMEL agreed to a $6 billion infrastructure deal with Nigeria in exchange for extensive access to some of the best production blocks in that West African country. ONGC-Mittal has invested the money in setting up a refinery, power plant and railway lines in Nigeria (The Times of India. 2006: emphasis mine).
Similarly, the OVL acquired a 25 percent stake in Sudan’s Greater Nile Oil Project in 2003 having current oil production is about 2.5 million barrels per day. It also has a 24.1 percent in Block 5A, in which OVL’s production share is 0.27 million metric tonnes. OVL’s third asset is in Block 54 where it holds 23.5 percent with the biggest stake being held by Malaysian oil major Petronas. Indian Oil Corp had entered into a consultancy service agreement for maintenance and inspection for pipelines for Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Co Ltd. (Sudan Tribune. 2007). ONGC Videsh Ltd. and Oil India have “drilled for oil in an off-shore well oil block with investment of US$12.5 million in Coˆte d’Ivoire. These companies have identified hydro-carbon and mining at the most targeted investment area for Indian trade and industry in Ivory Coast. Other African countries where Indian oil companies are planning to enter include Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. Today, Africa currently accounts for about 20 percent of India’s oil imports. And India has focused development initiatives on the resource-rich countries of West Africa” (Africa Oil. 2011: emphasis mine).
Investment Opportunities in Power Sector in Africa
Africa requires power technologies and equipment suitable for rural areas, where population density is low and, therefore, investment in robust electricity transmission infrastructure is not feasible. Alternatives include off-grid small-scale and affordable generators and low-cost solar energy panels. India has a strong and matured power back-up industry. Its exports of generators and inverters have been growing considerably due to the ability of leading domestic manufacturers to produce quality and innovative products at par with international standards.
In addition, Africa can learn from India’s flagship rural electrification program, the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY), which aims to electrify 0.1 million villages and provide free electricity connections to around 18 million households below the poverty line by March 2012. As of January 2011, the electrification of 77% and the intensive electrification of 49% of villages have been successfully undertaken (RGGVY at a glance. 2011). Africa has significant potential for hydro, wind and solar energy, which are yet to be exploited. Renewable energy may be the answer to many of Africa’s power woes. It can become a sustainable source of energy for regions that are a challenge in terms of connectivity to the grid. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy sources for Africa. The region receives abundant sunlight and has available vast tracts of vacant land on which to set up solar power farms. While the establishment of solar power projects currently entails significant capital outlay, new technologies are expected to drive these costs down in future. India already has a large and proven manufacturing base for renewable energy equipment. The country exports equipment pertaining to renewable energy worldwide (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 47).
Currently Kenya is experiencing frequent extended power outages, load-shedding, blackouts and chronic low quality power. Peak power demand is expected to rise from the current 1200MW in 2009 to 10000MW in 2030. The massive investment is needed in electricity generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure. “The energy sector is made up of 3 sub sectors: Electricity, Petroleum and Renewable energy. There are numerous investment opportunities in all the 3 areas. Considering the electricity sub sector, Kenya has one of the lowest electricity connectivity rates in the world. It is estimated that only 18 percent of the 38 million Kenyans have access to it. In the rural areas, the figure drops to about 10 percent. Between 2008 and 2012 it is intended to connect one million Kenyans to electricity. The base load power generation in Kenya is provided through geothermal and hydro energy. About 11 percent of Kenya’s current electricity system capacity (1200 MW) is generated from geothermal energy. There is extremely high level of repressed demand and a vast potential for load growth nationwide. The development of geothermal energy in Kenya is guided by fiscal and legal regimes that provide incentives to promote its development. There are advanced plans of the Kenyan government to increase electricity generation from geothermal energy to 576 MW by 2017” (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 28).
The available investment opportunities attracts in energy sector. ‘Electric power supply in Kenya falls far below the demand. This calls for private sector investment in power generation for sale to the national grid. The current peak electric power demand is estimated at 1,180 MW and it is projected to grow at 7% annually over the next 10 years, to reach 2,263MW by 2018. This demand growth is driven by an accelerated consumer connection policy and anticipated robust economic growth performance. Annual Electricity consumer connections have continued to rise sharply over the last three years. The Government’s policy is to connect at least one million new consumers in the next five years. To meet this projected demand in electricity, the currently installed generating capacity will have to be raised from 1,180MW to 1,860MW by 2013 and to 2,600MW by 2018. These supply projections have in-built reserve (security) margin of 15% above peak demand’ (Kenya-A Hub for Investment. 2011) and different sectors having potential projects opportunities are highlighted in Table-2.
Table-2 Sectors and Potential Projects Opportunities
Sector and descriptionPotential projects/opportunities
Transformer manufacturingSolar Electricity Generators
Geothermal DevelopmentWind Power Generation
300 Mw Coal Fired PlantBio-Fuel Production
Hydropower DevelopmentDevelopment of A 300-1000 Nuclear Power Plant
Renewable EnergyExploration of hydrocarbons and petroleum
A. Transformer Manufacturing
There is demand for 7,000 power distribution transformers in a fiscal year in Kenya. This demand will go up to 60,000 transformers to connect one million customers in another five fiscal years. Along with it, about 2000 transformers will be repaired every year. There is good investment opportunity in repair and maintenance of transformers in the country. The local manufacture under PPP model use the existing opportunities for other electricity hardware such as cross-arms, switchers, insulators, meters and local production of electricity poles (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 28: emphasis mine).
B. Geothermal Resource Power Generation
Kenya is the first African country to use geothermal energy for electrical power generation and the only country in Africa to exploit geothermal energy in a significant manner. Geothermal investigations in the Rift Valley began in 1956. The electricity generation currently depends at 60 percent hydro, 30 percent thermal and 10 percent geothermal. There is a need to expand generation capacity through renewable energy sources such as geothermal, wind power, solar, biomass and mini-hydro. The country has vast geothermal resource estimated at about 7000MW. Geothermal Development Company (GDC) has been established and undertakes comprehensive geothermal resources assessment and steam production through public funds in January 2009. ‘The GDC will hand over productive wells to KenGen and interested private investors for development of power plants and production of electricity for sale. The opportunities exist for investment in eight geothermal plants, which will produce between 35-70MW and 140 MW in different sites in the Rift Valley in the next years. There is good potential for development of two hydro power projects at Mutonga (60MW) and Lower Grand Falls (140MW) on the Tana River. Kenya’s estimated potential of small hydros is 3000MW of which only 30MW has been developed. The Ministry of Energy is carrying out studies on all the five drainage systems of Tana, Athi, Lake Victoria, Rift Valley and Ewaso Nyiro and identified 300 sites identified with a potential of about 600MW’ (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 29: emphasis mine).
C. Winds and Solar Power
The northern and coastal region of Kenya has excellent wind energy. “A private investor has been granted a license to set up 300MW wind power plant near Lake Turkana. This will contribute about 25 percent of the current electricity demand of the national grid. The Government is undertaking a wind data logging exercise to develop a national wind map, to guide private investors on high potential wind sites. The geographical location astride the equator has given the country a unique opportunity for a vibrant solar energy market, providing cheap electricity to homes and institutions especially, those in areas far from the national grid. In the coming months, about 300 public institutions in arid and semi-arid areas will be equipped with PV systems. This presents a great opportunity for investors, not only in installation but in manufacture of solar panels and associated accessories” (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 29). The government has identified a site in Mombassa for development of a 300MW coal plant, to run on imported coat and is discussing with the government of Tanzania and the World Bank, the possibility of setting up of a liquefied natural gas terminal in Mombassa” (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 30).
The excavation of oil is under-explored in sedimentary basins. The lack of investment failed to start it for commercial activities and only 31 wells have so far been drilled Nineteen out of the 38 oil blocks have been taken up for exploration. The Kenya Petroleum Refineries built in 1963 and 1974 needs update technology completely. ‘A private investment of about US$400 million will be required for refinery modernization. The pipeline capacity has been exhausted leading to transportation of petroleum products by road. Kenya is currently completing capacity enhancement project of line one – Mombassa to Nairobi and will soon commence the construction of a new 14-inch parallel pipeline from Nairobi to Eldoret. Kenya petroleum supply system is vulnerable and precarious because there are no strategic reserves’ (Kenya in the Front Line. 2010: 30). Private sector investors are invited to partner with government in setting up reserve storage facilities for petroleum products in various parts of Kenya including Nairobi, Eldoret, Kisumu, Nanyuki and Garissa.
2. Investment Opportunities in Zimbabwe
The country has 26 billion tons of coal reserves available for power generation that may use for 8 000 years at current consumption (3 million tons/year). There is a potential of building new hydro-electric power stations, thermal power stations and refurbishment of existing structures. The alternative energy sources in Zimbabwe are wind and solar (Zimbabwe Investment Authority.2011).
3. Investment Opportunities in 24 African Countries
Table-3 shares the number of projects in energy & power sectors in different African countries. It shares six different sectors in twelve African countries worth USD 7936.57 million. Similarly, Table-4 highlights the different projects in energy and power sectors in more than twenty four countries having worth of billion of dollars. Table-4 explains the power and energy projects in different courtiers such as: Benin has major projects on biogas to energy, wave investors and solar energy machines. Burkina Faso attracts 0.48 million USD, Cameroon invites 40 million USD projects, DR Congo calls for 12 million USD, Malawi highlights 1109 million USD, Mozambique attracts 8707.24 million USD, Namibia writes 23.9 million, Senegal mentions 18 million, Zambia 2 million USD and Gabon & Togo did not decide the value of projects.
Table-4 highlights different power projects as Benin has Biomass densification essentially involves two parts (a) to compact loose biomass material with pressure and (b) to maintain the product in the compressed state after removal of pressure with the project Value of USD 1 300 000. Cameroon invites a very large project for Rural Electrification project, which requires importation of all materials and accessories from India. D R Congo invites project on Jatropha Culture with the value of USD 10 Million. Malawi needs 6 Hydropower generation projects in different ranges of 300 MW, 150 MW and Up to 50MW each. Mozambique requires development of power plants in Gas-fired, Coal-fired, Hydropower, Bio-diesel, Bio-diesel Plant, Production of coking coal and thermal coal (Table-4). Namibia is looking for Biomass Briquettes making from sustainable waste materials for energy generation.
Table-3 Energy & Power Sectors in Africa
Sector Sub Sector Number of Projects Total Value
Power & Energy Ø Thermal
Ø Oil & Gas
Ø Petroleum Products
Ø Renewable Energy, etc. 28 7936.57 v Benin
v Burkina Faso
v DR Congo
Source: Project Opportunities2011. 7th Edition of India-Africa Project Partnership. EXIM Bank, CII and Government of India: 4: emphasis mine.
Table-4 Project Description in Energy & Power Sectors in Africa
Country Project Description Total Value
(US $ Million)
Benin Project Biomass to Energy
Biomass densification essentially involves two parts:
To compact loose biomass material with pressure.
To maintain the product in the compressed state after removal of pressure (Project Value: 1 300 000 USD)4.62
BeninImport of Wave Investors and Solar Energy MachinesNA
Burkina FasoSolar Energy0.48
Cameroon The Rural Electrification project is a very large project which requires importation of all materials and accessories from India. It also requires Installation Services.
Cable extending factory e.g. rehabilitate the Indian company in Douala-Camencab.
Indian hand pumps for Rural water supply.
Practical Solar P.V home systems for large agglomerated rural areas in Cameroon.
We need transfer of technology to small scale enterprises in the electrical sectors.
Development of Biogas Technology from Animal and Farm waste.40
DR Congo Developing green Technologies, social business.
Cassava crops production and processing
Project Size: 2 Million US$
Project Size: 10 Million US$12
GabonStudy for the construction of a transmission line energy of 63 kV over 100km.NA
Malawi 2 power generation projects:
Hydro projects (300 MW and 150 MW, 4 Minihydro projects (Upto 50MW each)
Coal fired power project (300MW).
Will also provide information in the mineral sector.NA
MalawiDevelopment of four to five hydropower sites and one coal fired power plant.650
MalawiCoal Fired Power Generation5
MalawiMpatamanga Hydro Power Generation450
MalawiFeasibility studies for the development of Chizuma Hydropower Plant on Bua River.3.3
MalawiFeasibility studies for the development of Chimgonda Hydropower Plant on Dwambazi River.3.3
MalawiFeasibility studies for the development of Chasombo Hydropower Plant of Bua River.3.3
MozambiqueExpansion of the existing HCB, to a maximum of 1.245 MW1180
MozambiqueDevelopment of a Gas-fired power project.1280
MozambiqueDevelopment of Coal-fired power plant.1200
MozambiqueDevelopment of Coal-fired power plant.1300
MozambiqueDevelopment of Hydropower Plant.124
MozambiqueProduction of coking coal and thermal coal for export.294
MozambiqueProduction of activated carbon from coconut shell.0.04
MozambiqueCoking Plant: Coal Coke production141.754
MozambiqueCharcoal Project for Charcoal production93.2
NamibiaBiomass Briquettes making from sustainable waste materials for energy generation in Namibia.23.9
TOTAL PROJECT VALUE IN AFRICA USD 5678.382 MILLION
Source: Project Opportunities. 2011. 7th Edition of India-Africa Project Partnership. EXIM Bank, CII and Government of India: 5-64: emphasis mine.
India needs to build bilateral, multilateral and regional relations to fulfill its independent energy needs. Energy sector cannot be seen in isolation but a collective effort to develop economic market. India under the global partnership (with Africa, Asia, Russia, Europe and Middle East regions) of overall development will strengthen its energy demand with the energy dominated regions and they will get the oil and gas technology for their sustainable development. ‘The political leadership is apparently aware of the vast prospect of solar energy. It has been reported that India is planning to develop 60 Solar Cities, based on a model already practiced in New York, Tokyo and London. The target is to reduce the use of conventional energy by at least 10 percent over the next five years. At least one city in each State will be targeted as a Solar City while up to five will be eligible for such status’ (V R Krishna Iyer. 2008).
Overall, India has geographic advantages in linking the African and Asian continents. There is a need to develop energy trade between Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean route in building Indo-Africa trade and economic relations in a comprehensive way. Indian investors are committed to work with the African energy sector with the understanding of transfer of technology. Along with it, African human resource gets short and long term training programmes related to energy sector that will help in receiving the transfer of technology. Reliance is working with this understanding in oil and gas sector of Nigeria. The elected governments in Africa wooed Indian investors by assuring guaranteed protection on the one hand and the investors reciprocates it positively on the other hand. It is a genuine concern of India global energy policy that draws a parallel thinking vis-à-vis developed countries.
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